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10.2 - The Challenge of the West Facing the West Not...

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The Challenge of the West? Facing the West. Not unidirectional move towards modernity or capitalist transformation. Relationship between European development and underdevelopment of colonized world? Did industrial development require slavery and colonialism? To what extent did Eu transformation result from internal and external factors? Great gap between industrial economies (steamship, telegraph) and rest of the world? Incorporation of world into a worldwide capitalist market Reform: self-strengthening; defend against W. encroachment. Resistance. The Case of Japan. Why were Qing Chinese and Ottoman empires not annexed? More valuable intact? Ottoman E as buffer state. Cohesive societies.
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The Case of Japan Japan: Comparisons and Contrasts with China. Race, myth history, imperial system, language, geography as ingredients favoring its nationalism. Closed off contact in early 17 th century; restricted access to Nagasaki. Most foreigners turned away.
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“Closed Country” Policy Sakoku policy—external contacts minimized for 250 years. Portuguese castaways reach Japan 1540s; followed by St. Frances Xavier & Sp. Jesuits and a Christian century—1/2 milln converts? Country closed after 1640 and until 1853. Expulsion of foreigners, mostly Portuguese and Sp; anti-Christian campaigns; policy of seclusion—fleets fell into disuse, citizen not allowed to freely leave “Window on the West”—after 1640 Nagasaki (Deshima) from where bilateral trade; Dutch (rangaku) learning, esp in science, medicine, technology Some trade with China continued St. Francis
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