11.1 - Gender, States, and Capitalism, 1750-1914 Gender not...

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Gender, States, and Capitalism, 1750-1914 Gender not sex or sexual difference because implicit in latter terms is a notion of biological determinism. Gender a social construction. Both men and women in their intimate and public relations are shaped by the socially constructed concept of gender. Gender helps us understand how states and politics use gendered terms and references to create meanings by defining occupations, familial, political and social roles as masculine or feminine in order to create natural hierarchies or oppositional relationships. Jean-Francois Millet, “The Gleaners” 1857
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Gender, Politics, and States, 1750-1914 J. Austen, Pride & Prejudice: “It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of good fortune, must be in want of a wife.” Queen Victoria: “let women be what God intended, a helpmate for man but with totally different duties and vocations.” Multidirectional and complex story 19 th c nations/states excluded women from pub pol sphere; earlier Modern state had patriarchal policies & assumptions: women lost legal “personhood”; property rights; recourse against physical abuse; possibility of instituting divorce; abortion rights; access to most occupations Middle and upper middle class movements sought right to vote. Feminism a “creed of the Protestant middle classes”? Right to vote (NZ 1893, Finland1906, Norway 1913, Switzerland 1971). Type of employment in Britain Number of women employed Domestic Servants 1,740,800 Teachers 124,000 Nurses 68,000 Doctors 212 Architects 2
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Feminisme , 1837) As philosophy & movement dates back to Enlightenment when some supported women’s education Enlightenment call for equality not generally extended to women Women used logic of Locke to argue for women's rights Mary Astell attacked male dominance in the family Mary Wollstonecraft ( Vindication of Rights of Woman , 1792): possess same natural rights as men; also spoke out against slavery, treatment of Native Ams; sought access to employment, jobs, education; middle class women to lead the way Women crucial to revolutionary activities Fr revolution granted women rights of education, property, no vote Olympe de Gouges (1745-93)'s declaration of full citizenship for women too radical (Les Droits de la Femme) Women made no significant gains in other revolutions Gained ground in 19th c US and Europe Seneca Falls Declaration of Women’s Rights. Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony (campaigned for abolitn slavery). Women became involved in abolitionist,
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11.1 - Gender, States, and Capitalism, 1750-1914 Gender not...

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