L9 - Paramagnet - Pressure(1)

L9 - Paramagnet - Pressure(1) - PH2103 Thermal Physics...

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PH2103 Thermal Physics Lecture 9: Paramagnet, Pressure Massimo Pia Ciamarra [email protected] SPMS-PAP-03-14 Textbook paragraph: 3.3; 3.4 (part) Discussion Forum
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1. Paramagnet Entropy & Temperature 2. Mechanical Equilibrium Pressure Ideal gas Agenda
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1. Paramagnet Entropy and temperature
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Paramagnet At the microscopic scale, each atom/molecule can be seen as a little compass needle, that feels a torque that tries to align its magnetic dipole with the existing magnetic field, B. Absence of magnetic field Presence of magnetic field More in your Electromagnetism course
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Energy Quantum mechanics → quantization of the magnetic dipole along the field direct. If only to states are allowed, we represent the dipole as an arrow parallel or antiparallel to the field. Applied magnetic field Representation of a two-state paramagnet As concern the energy: 0   Energy of a dipole: Parallel antiparallel E =±μ B
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Energy Let's indicate the number of atoms pointing up and down with The total energy of the system is Note that we are neglecting the interaction between the dipoles N and N = N N U B ( N N ) B ( N 2 N ) The magnetization of the system is: M ( N N ) =− U B We would like to know how these quantities depend on temperature: U ( T )= ?
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