Lecture_21 - Lecture 21 Democratization Democracies...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 21: Democratization May 16, 2008 Democracies Today "Waves of Democratization" 1) 19th century (Western Europe, America) 2) PostWWII (Africa, South Asia, Germany, Japan) 3) 19751992 (Southern Europe, Latin America, Eastern Europe) Reverse waves Interwar 1960s70s Mid1990s2008? Definitions Democracy (minimalist): people elect leaders who translate citizen preferences into policy Electoral democracy: Regularly contested, multi party, free and fair elections with universal adult suffrage Liberal democracy = electoral + civil liberties: rule of law, separation of powers, freedom of speech, assembly, religion, and property Electoral autocracies: tainted elections & limited liberties Why the 3 Wave? rd 1) Economic growth Income and Democracy Democracy GDP/capita Income and Democracy Former US/UK island colonies South Africa Democracy India Gulf states Singapore GDP/capita Why the 3 Wave? rd 1) 2) 3) 4) Economic growth Economic crises in 1970s Catholic Church Leadership Leaders Why the 3 Wave? rd 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Economic growth Economic crises in 1970s Catholic Church Individuals External influence End of Cold War Demonstration effect "People Power" Manila, 1986 Prague, 1989 Other factors/nonfactors Culture Protestant vs. Catholic/Orthodox/Confucian Islamic democracy Arab democracy? (Non)democracy in Arab Countries Other factors/nonfactors Culture Protestant vs. Catholic/Orthodox/Confucian Islamic democracy? Arab democracy? Resource curse Does Democracy Peace? Democratic Peace Theory Transitions are violent No wars between democracies Shared values? Mechanism for conflict resolution? Dems prefer easy targets? Incentives to use nationalism/scapegoating to build coalition Worse in ethnically divided countries Use of fear to mobilize voters Zakaria: democratic institutions before elections ...
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