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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 14: The Third World in the Cold War
April 30, 2008 Background to Interventions Decolonization Nonalignment (Bandung Conference, 1955) Bandung Conference, 1955 Background to Interventions Decolonization Nonalignment (Bandung Conference, 1955) Third world as conceptual entity Competing economic models ContainmentNSC68 US Theories about Intervention Cumulativity Domino Theory
Invasion/aid Inspiration Intimidation Does (informal) empire increase power? Credibility US as reliable protector Soviets emboldened Emboldening today
"Now, when so much progress is being made, is no time to turn tail and leave Iraq... It is a dangerous illusion to suppose that another retreat by the civilized world would satisfy the appetite of the terrorists and get them to leave us alone...In fact, such a move would only embolden the terrorists...A precipitous withdrawal from Iraq would be a victory for the terrorists, an invitation to further violence against free nations and a terrible blow to the future security of the United States of America." Means Occupation Military aid Coups/assassinations Money/arms Disinformation Problems
AntiCommunists not necessarily democratic Local civil wars already vicious Leftist insurgencies rooted in economics Unintended consequences US Interventions
China 1945 (anticommunist) Greece 1947, 64 (anticommunist) Philippines 1945 (fruit, nationalism) S Korea 1945 (anticommunist) Albania 194953 (anticommunist) S Korea 1952 (anticommunist) Iran 1953 (oil, nationalism) Guatemala 1954 (fruit, nationalism) Indonesia 1957 (nationalism) Guyana 1953 (leftist president) Vietnam 1954 (anticommunist) Cambodia 1955 (nationalism) Cuba 1959 (sugar & nationalism) Congo 1960 (mining) Brazil 1961 (nationalism) Dominican Rep 1963 (nationalism) Vietnam 196475 (anticommunist) Greece 1964 (anti-communism) Indonesia 1965 (nationalism) Cambodia 1969 (anti-communism) Chile 1973 (mining - nationalism) Angola 1975-80 (anti-communism) E Timor 1975 (nationalism) Afghanistan 1979 (anti-USSR) El Salvador 1980-89 (nationalism) Libya 1981 (anti-terrorism?) Grenada 1983 (anti-communism) Nicaragua 1987 (anti-socialist) Panama 1989 (canal & anti-drugs) Iraq 1991 (oil) Somalia 1993 (humanitarian) Bosnia 1999 (humanitarian) Afghanistan 2002 (anti-terrorism) Iraq 2003 (?) Coup in Iran, 1953: "successful" Bay of Pigs (Cuba), 1961: failed http://youtube.com/watch?v=IPG4SpOvm8g&featu http://youtube.com/watch?v=IPG4SpOvm8g&feat http://youtube.com/watch?v=o5b8aX9gKOI&featu Afghanistan: The "Soviet Vietnam" Afghanistan: The "Soviet Vietnam" Results "When two elephants fight, it is only the grass which gets hurt" Not easy to control internal politics Defeated leftists and strengthened rightists Exacerbated civil wars Vietnam and Korea debacles End of superpower patronage end of wars & new wars In 3rd world, stalemate Unintended consequences ...
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- Fall '08