1750-1914, THE LONG 19
Pol and Socl Revolutions in late 18
Am, Fr, Haitian, and subsequent rise of
independence movements in L. America.
Shaped by Scientific Revoltn and
Effects included rise of nationalism and natn states as pol unit
for Western industrial and industrializing states.
Also shift from monarchies in late 18th
century to parliamentary and dem forms of govt.
Yet even as these “dem revolutions”
occurred, maj of world’s people excluded from benefits Changing gender relations.
Industrial Revolution beginning late 18th century.
Characterized by expansion of
manufacturing, rise of new inventions and technology, pop growth.
Led to change in
balance of power as maj industrial and industrializing regions gained upper hand, e.g.,
modest Fr expeditionary force seized Egypt from Muslim rulers in 1798, or Br control
over S. Asia in 19th c, or ‘opening’ up Chi,; or
industrial north prevailing over
slaveholding south in U.S., or W. takeover of Africa at end of 19th c, or Japan’s victory
over Russia in 1904-5.
Industrialization led to more massive armaments.
Environmental effects; exacerbated social and ec inequalities between and among
regions and within regions.
Led to economic and social transformation.
Emergence of US, Ger; Russia.
Growth of international alliances and organizations.
Rise of West.
Growing W imperialism, esp. European.
Incorporation of most of world
into orbit of West.
Western hegemony in many forms: ec, pol, military, socl, cultural,
No land empires, as in 1450-1750 period, that could resist W
W hegemony took form of formal empires, e.g., scramble for Africa;
increasing commercial penetration of empires that were not formally taken over, e.g.,
Ottoman and Chi empires.
Leaders and socs world over had to contend with the
spread of W institutions and values.
Variety of indigenous responses and initiatives.
States and capitalism came of age, specifically nation states and industrial capitalism
World War I: massive internal warfare.
Long 19th century set the stage for our contemporary world (SIS 201).