Final_Study_Guide

Final_Study_Guide - - Locke's Second Treatise o Chapter 2...

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- Locke’s Second Treatise o Chapter 2 (State of Nature) State of Perfect Freedom State of Perfect Equality Basic intrinsic rights: Self-preservation o Preserve all mankind Execute and enforce laws o In the absence of enforcing power, laws mean nothing Right to destroy that which threatens self (self-preservation) Punish the person who committed “crime” Reparations for wrongdoings to victim Does not have the liberty to enslave or destroy oneself Men cannot be judges in their own cases: self-love creates bias- justifies civil government o Chapter 3 (State of War) Laws help end war- state of perfect nature=war continues Every little conflict in nature ends in war, therefore laws are necessary to avoid war (escalation) Lawful to stop someone before committing a crime to prevent the crime (kill thief) Although natural to be in state of perfect freedom, men put themselves into civil society to avoid perpetual state of war o Chapter 5 (Of Property) Unlimited acquisition of non-perishable property Property= something you can lawfully keep others out of- based on need and labor 12 Point Argument Earth given to all men for convenience and comfort Use earth for preservation, sustenance, and comfort Cannot share own body and labor Other items become our property when we use our own labor on them Labor gives value, allowing common goods to become privately owned Four limits: Extent of labor, enough and as good left in common, not harm others, no spoilage Create money to avoid spoilage: trade perishable items for non- perishable money Money encourages increased labor Labor creates inequity of property, but okay because man invented money for this Money creates wealth and property: not same property, but all reduces to money eventually anyway Labor benefits economy by creating wealth Money creates quarrels/theft and encouraged state of war
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o Chapter 9 (Of the Ends of Political Society and Government) State of nature is a state of war: give up freedom to government for self- preservation Necessities for successful government: Known and settled laws and rules Laws useless without judges- known and impartial judges Force: power vested in someone in society to enforce legislative decisions Not completely give up freedom for government Only to preserve self and property (and liberty)- public good However, government with power to do whatever necessary to preserve life - The Constitution- let the people rule, but put up barriers to rule (“steps removed” from people- 1=HoR, 2=Sen, 3=Pres, 4=SC) o Article One: Legislative Branch Section Two: HoR qualifications One for every 30K people o Article Two: Executive Branch o Article Three: Judicial Branch Section One: Composed of SC and other inferior courts Section Two: Judicial Power Trial by jury
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Final_Study_Guide - - Locke's Second Treatise o Chapter 2...

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