EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE - Scientific Method Empiricism we can...

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Scientific Method Empiricism : we can predict the behavior of the natural world by reasoning from careful observations Parsimony : preference for fewest assumptions. Deduction : specific cases based on general principles Induction : constructs general conclusions based on specific cases + DiGS Inductive Leap : go from many observed examples to all possible examples Discovery-Based Science : explores and collects date without formal testing of hypotheses. Hypothesis-Based Science : tests specific questions Good Hypothesis : 1. Reasonably consistent with well-established facts 2. Generates predictions that can be tested 3. Results should be repeatable by independent observers 4. falsifiable Observational Experiment : characteristics of naturally-occurring groups are compared (demonstrate correlation not causation) Manipulative Experiment : similar individuals are randomly assigned to groups that are treated differently (more evidence for causality) Explanatory Hypothesis : provisional explanation- NOT a prediction
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Model : explanatory hypothesis with detailed explanation Theory : explanatory hypothesis that has been extensively tested and can explain a broad range of observations Testable Hypothesis : just need one counterexample to prove false Dependent Variable : system response Independent Variable : factor under investigation Controlled Variable : factor that may affect the dependent variable, but is held constant Bias : unintended advantage given to one treatment Double-Blind Study : neither patient nor physician knows who is experimental group vs control group Treatment : level or category of the independent variable Control : a treatment whose response is the baseline for which other treatments are measured Statistical Hypothesis : statement of difference or no difference Research Hypothesis : difference Null Hypothesis : no difference Observed vs Expected Results : null hypothesis is our expected result
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Statistical Probability : (P value) if no real difference then, arose from chance alone. “we have the evidence to reject the null hypothesis if this probability is 0.05 or LESS. Replication : Multiple experimental units… Reduces the risk that results are due to a statistical fluke or atypical reactions to the treatments < 0.05 Reject Null Hypothesis (no difference) > 0.05 Fail to Reject Null Hypothesis (difference) Properties of Life Common Characteristics : * organisms are composed of cells * organisms grow and develop * organisms regulate their metabolic processes * organisms respond to stimuli * organisms reproduce * organisms evolve and adapt to their environment Organic Compounds : made by living things Vitalism : “vital force”- energy or spirit that animates life Emergent Properties : characteristics not found at lower levels Reductionism : complex systems can be explained in terms of the properties of lower levels Holism : belief that complex systems have so many emergent properties that their behavior can’t be understood solely by studying lower levels Systems Biology : studies the interactions between lower level components
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