7_Sensory_Contributions_to_Motor_Control

7_Sensory_Contributions_to_Motor_Control - Sensory...

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Unformatted text preview: Sensory Contributions to Motor Control EXSS 380 – Neuromuscular Control & Learning Motor Control • Closed loop (feedback) systems – Sensory input (feedback) processed to generate or refine movement commands • CNS changes output based on sensory input • Open loop (feedforward) systems – CNS provides output independent of sensory input or movement outcomes • Must have knowledge of status of system and surroundings • Feedback available but not utilized during activation – Essential for selection of appropriate activity Motor Control • Purposeful human movement is governed by inter- related feedforward and feedback control loops • Sensory information from internal and external environments essential for initiation and regulation of movement – State of the environment – State of the body (neural and mechanical) – State of body with respect to the environment Motor Control • Thermostat model of closed loop control Motor Control • Sensory information integrated by CNS into two types of information critical to neuromuscular control – Proprioception • Joint position sense • Spatial orientation of body segments – Kinesthesia • Sensation of joint motion Motor Control • Multiple sources of sensory information available to inform CNS of movement characteristics – Vision – Audition – Tenomuscular receptors – Articular receptors – Cutaneous receptors Motor Control • Vision provides the most important sensory information regarding external environment – Not essential for movement • Accuracy greatly impaired without • Postural control deficits – Role in planning and executing movement • Target identification • Obstacle identification – Essential for error correction Motor Control • Audition – Refines motor control, and aids in preparing the neuromuscular system for activity • Speech • Proper use of electronics • Terrain during gait • Object integrity – Not required for the production of voluntary movement Motor Control • Tenomuscular receptors – Muscle spindle • Sensitive to muscle length and ∆ muscle length – Indirect indication of joint position sense and kinesthesia • Efferent innervation by γ (gamma) and β (beta) -motorneurons – Contraction lengthens equatorial region, exciting Ia afferent ≈ α- γ coactivation – Is heightened Ia afferent activity due to muscle length changes or γ-mn activity? Motor Control...
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7_Sensory_Contributions_to_Motor_Control - Sensory...

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