Cl36Sp08L10_Rp8-9_Ab - CLASSICS 36: LECTURE TEN REPUBLIC B...

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C LASSICS 36: L ECTURE T EN R EPUBLIC B OOKS 8-9: DEGENERATION AND THE UNHAPPY TYRANT 1. Platonic psychology vs. modern “action theory” 1.1 Modern philosophy of action tends to makes distinction between judgment and desire psychologically fundamental: faculty of desire provides motivation and sets goals; faculty of judgment forms beliefs about how to fulfil goals of desire. 1.2 But in tripartite soul all three parts or natures have desires and set goals (Book 9, 580d-581c). Thus, behaviour of person determined not only by what each part contributes but also by which “rules” which (= which sets overriding goal for person). Compare Freud. 2. Details of city/soul analogy for the degenerate constitutions 2.1 In each case, the vice consists in some element other than the wisdom-loving being dominant in city or soul. 2.2 Timocracy (soldiers/honour dominant) (547b-550c): • city: military types rule (547e), wise are distrusted (547e); constitution is a compromise between Callipolis and a commercial society (547b) • soul (548e-549b): sense of honour dominant, intellect devalued, character is a compromise between intellectual and commercial values (550b) 2.3 Oligarchy (moneyed class/necessary appetites dominant) (550c-555b): city: money-hoarding rich rule (551b), no value accorded military prowess (551e), poor either despised or feared, kept down by force (552b-d); city's
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Cl36Sp08L10_Rp8-9_Ab - CLASSICS 36: LECTURE TEN REPUBLIC B...

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