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Cl36Sp08TechTermsAr - — subject substrate substratum that...

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Ar. sometimes treats the particular individual (“Socrates,” “Callias” etc.) as substance; at other times the priority of form over matter in the task of explanation causes him to treat the individual’s form as substance (i.e. as what the individual actually is ). The particular individual (whether treated as substance or not) is analysed as a composite of form (or nature or essence) and matter (e.g. Socrates' humanity vs. his flesh, bones etc.). The matter of a particular individual is that individual potentially, and becomes that individual in actuality by taking on the appropriate form. Other terms of art that Aristotle uses: species (plural: species ) vs. genus (plural: genera ) vs. differentia (plural: differentiae ): e.g. Socrates belongs to the species “human” (immediate natural class), humans belong to the genus “animal” (broader natural class); humans are rational animals, “rational” being the differentia (defining mark) of our species
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Unformatted text preview: — subject/ substrate/ substratum: that which underlies (e.g. marble is the underlying thing common to this lump of marble and the statue made from it.) Notice that “subject” is a functional category; the term does not pick out some particular kind of thing in the world (as, by contrast, “substance” or “species” does). If Socrates becomes tan in the summer, he (the substance) is the subject of the change from pale to tan. But what he is is a substance rather than a subject. In the example of the statue it is the matter that is the subject. So different kinds of things can function as subject (because subject is a functional category) — privation = absence of a form (e.g. matter of Venus de Milo = marble, form = artistic organisation it exhibits, privation = unworked shapelessness of the marble from which it was made)...
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