Chapter13Henrietta-CausesofCivilWar-Notes - 1 a b c d e 2 a b c d 1 a b c d e f Henrietta Chapter 13 Civil War 1850 Crisis and Compromise Even before

Chapter13Henrietta-CausesofCivilWar-Notes - 1 a b c d e 2 a...

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Henrietta Chapter 13: Civil War 1) 1850: Crisis and Compromise a) Even before Taylor had taken office, events in CA triggered a new political crisis over slavery. b) In January of 1848, John A. Sutter discovered flakes of gold when his mill was being built. c) He tried to keep it a secret but word eventually got out. d) When President Polk confirmed this discovery in December of 1848, the “California Gold Rush” was on. e) In 1849 alone, 80,000 and some “forty-niners” had arrived in CA, whether by ship or by wagon. 2) Statehood for California a) This rapid influx of settlers revived the debate over slavery in the region. b) Taylor urged the California government to apply for statehood quickly and as a free state. c) When they did, and when Congress approved (with pressure from the President), it alarmed southern politicians because it prevented the expansion of slavery all the way to the Pacific. d) Many southerners threatened secession; however, the majority just preferred a political strategy of resistance, in which they would refuse to accept CA’s admission unless the federal government guaranteed the future of slavery. 1) Constitutional Conflict a) Southerners thought of a few solutions to their problems… b) Southerners, like John Calhoun for example, supported secession. c) Other southerners had a more moderate approach in which the Missouri Compromise would either be extended or a new line would be drawn. d) And lastly, squatter sovereignty was thrust into the national spotlight again as a solution for the acquisition of new territories. e) Antislavery advocates were unwilling to accept any plan for CA that might allow the expansion of slavery in the territories. f) Instead, a few proposed the idea of containing slavery within its existing boundaries and then extinguishing it completely. 1) A Complex Compromise a) Standing on the brink of disaster and possibly the disintegration of the Union, a group of people (made up of; Millard Fillmore, Henry Clay, Daniel Webster and Stephen A. Douglass) secured the passage of 5 separate laws that were known collectively as the Compromise of 1850. b) A new Fugitive Slave Act that enlisted federal magistrates in the task of returning runaway slaves. c) The admittance of CA as a free state. d) Resolved a boundary dispute between Texas and New Mexico in favor of NM. e) Abolished the slave trade, but not slavery, in the District of Columbia.

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