Anti- Kurds Plan VBI - Kurds Bad Plan Oxford defines...

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Kurds Bad Plan Oxford defines Morality as what ought to do and ought as moral duty or obligation therefore my Value is Morality. The Standard is maximizing wellbeing. Prefer this framework because: 1) Util is the most effective way of maintaining equality . Without Util, arbitrary rulings and laws can be justified as Util provides a constant value of a human life. Thus Util is moral as it attempts to maximize the wellbeing of humans in general. 2) Util justifies governmental policy actions, as Util governments addresses the needs of the citizens and thus guarantees the best possible outcome . Goodin 95, Professor of Philosophy at the Research School of the Social Sciences at the Australian National University(Robert E., Cambridge University Press, “Utilitarianism As a Public Philosophy” pg 63) My larger argument turns on the proposition that there is something special about the situation of public officials that makes util itarianism more plausible for them (or, more precisely, makes them adopt a form of utilitarianism that we would find more acceptable) than private individuals. Before proceeding with that larger argument, I must therefore say what it is that is so special about public officials and their situations that makes it both more necessary and more desirable for them to adopt a more credible form of utilitarianism. Consider, first the argument from necessity. Public officials are obliged to make their choices under uncertainty , and uncertainty of a very special sort at that. All choices-public and private alike- are made under some degree of uncertainty, of course. But in the nature of things, private individuals will usually have more complete information on the peculiarities of their own circumstances and on the ramifications that alternative possible choices might have for them. Public officials , in contrast, at relatively poorly informed as to the effects that their choices will have on individuals , one by one. What they typically do know are generalities: averages and aggregates . They know what will happen most often to most people as a result of their various possible choices. But that is all. That is enough to allow public policy makers to use the util itarian calculus – if they want to use it at all – to choose general rules of conduct. Knowing aggregates and averages, they can proceed to calculate the utility payoffs from adopting each alternative possible general rule. But they cannot be sure what the payoff will be to any given individual or on any particular occasion. Their knowledge of generalities, aggregates and averages is just not sufficiently fine-grained for that. 3 ) Util insures only theories basing on the benefits to the nation as a whole can be achieved, thus allowing only the best solutions possible.
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