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psych study guide

psych study guide - 11:29:00 PM History and Research...

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05/05/2008 01:29:00 History and Research Methods Major philosophical quandaries:     - mind-body dualism / monism dualism is idea that the mind and body are completely separate entities monism views the mind and body as one entity     - free will vs. determinism having free will means day to day decisions are not predetermined determinism is the idea that everything we do is already laid out in some  grand scheme     - nature vs. nurture the quandary that deals with the difference between exposed to certain things  through nurture makes you the person you are or nature, meaning your  genetic qualities determine the kind of person you are Deductive vs. inductive methods Deductive is using what you know to deduce an answer. Working towards a  theory rather than working from one Inductive is starting with a theory and then trying to prove it instead of the  other way around Qualities of the scientific method      - falsifiability of hypotheses      - replicability of findings necessary to provide reliable results      - parsimonious explanation      - devaluation of anecdotal evidence Naturalistic observations (definition)
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Case histories (definition) Correlational studies Correlation vs. causation Correlation is two events happening in relation to one another Causation is one event triggering another to take place Experiment (definition) A test of a hypothesis using a control and an experimental situation of the  hypothesis Experimental and control conditions Dependent, independent variables Purpose of descriptive vs. inferential statistics Neuroscience Cerebrovascular accident (CVA)    Strokes Thrombotic, embolic stroke Ruptured aneur ysms Hemorrhagic stroke Electroencephalography (EEG)  Hindbrain w/functions     Consists of the  o Pons and Medulla Protective reflexes, infant relexes, orienting reflexes,  cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive reflexes
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o Cerebellum Inner (old) cerebellum: balance Outer (new) cerebellum: rapid, automative movement; timing of  movements and thoughts Midbrain w/functions                         Midbrain reticular formation: general arousal, sleep and wake cycles, pain  perception Superior culliculi (left and right): visual targeting – saccades Inferior culliculi (left and right): auditory targeting Forebrain w/functions   Hypothalamus o Controls Pituitary gland
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