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Mental Health Exam 1Mental health- able to recognize own potential, cope with normal stress, work productively, make a contribution to the communityTraits of mental health- think rationally, communicate appropriately, learn, grow emotionally, be resilient, have a healthy self-esteemMental illness- disorders with definable diagnosis.Significant dysfunction in mental functioning r/t developmental, biological, and physiological disturbancesCulturally definedResilience- ability and capacity to secure resources needed to support well-being (essential to recovery)Characterized by: optimism, sense of mastery, competenceDiathesis- biological predisposition (runs in families)Stress- environmental stress or trauma Combination of genetic vulnerability and negative environmental stressorsDSM5- The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders, 5thedition (official medical guidelines of the American Psychiatric Association for diagnosing psychiatric disorders)Psychiatric Mental Health Nurses- employ purposeful use of self, use nursing, psychosocial, neurobiological theories and research, work with people throughout the lifespan, employed in a variety of settingsNANDA- North American Nursing Diagnosis Association InternationalNANDA-I describes a nursing diagnosis as a clinical judgement about individual, family, or community responses to actual or potential health problems and life processesFuture challenges and roles- aging population (Alzheimer’s & dementia), increasing cultural diversity (cultural competence), expanding technology, patient advocacy, legislative involvementPsychoanalytic Theories-Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory-revolutionized the way we think about mental health. Freud’s theory offers a comprehensive explanation of complex human processes and suggests that the formation of a patient’s personality is strongly influenced by childhood experiences. Personality structure- Id- pleasure principle, reflex action, primary process (babies, go- green light)
Ego- problem solver, reality tester (older, caution- yellow light)Superego- moral competence (angel on shoulder, red light)Defense mechanisms and anxiety- operate on unconscious level. Deny, falsify, or distort reality to make itless threatening) Useful to a pointExperiences during the early stages of life determine and individual’s lifetime adjustment patterns and personality traits. (first 5 years)Freudian Theory and Nursing- Formation of personality, conscious and unconscious influences, importance of individual talk sessions, attentive listening, transference, and counter transference.Transference- Pt treats you like someone in their lifeCountertransference- Staff treats pt. like someone in their lifeErikson’s Ego Theory- Eight stages of development (Personality continues to develop through old age).