5 June 2008-Ethics

5 June 2008-Ethics - 5June2008 PHIL1105

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Unformatted text preview: 5June2008 PHIL1105 LogicalPositivism>LinguisticAnalysis 3kindsofstatements Analytic=SelfEvident[e.g.Allwivesaremarried] Synthetic=NonSelfEvidentbutabletobetestedforvalidity[Fact Statements,e.g.AllSetonHallStudentsareMarried] Nonsense=Neitherofabove[e.g.SetonHallstudentsshouldbemarried; Marriageisaright] o TheologycontainingGod,angels,Heaven,etc. o MetaphysicsBeing,naturalessence,humanrights o Ethics"oughtness"[NormativeStatements] Whatisthecriterionofethics? Forlogicalpositivists,itisthelaw Forculturalrelativists,itisthecustomsofthoselivinginagivensociety ForAristotle,itisthatwhichbringshappiness(betweenvirtueandvice) Innaturallaw,itiswhichsatisfiesthenatureofthebeing ForUtilitarians,itistheactionswhichbringpleasure ForSituationalEthicians,itisthatwhichbestoptimizeslovegivenexternal factors Overbreak,considertwostatements:1.Martyrssuffer.2.Martyrsexist.(AJAyer) Whichstatementisanalytic?Whichsynthetic? Oftheabovestatements,thefirstisanalytic,assufferingisintrinsictomartyrdom; thesecondstatementissynthetic,asitwouldrequireresearchtoproveordisprove. LegalPositivism Legalpositivistsbelievethatthebasisofethicsispositive/writtenlaw.Positivelaw istemporalandlocal(foragivenareaandtime).Forlawtobevaliditmustmeet thefollowingcriteria: Thosewritingthelawmusthavelegitimateauthority Lawmustbepromulgated Lawmusthaverelevantinterpretation Lawmusthavesufficientsanctionforitsinfraction Shortcomingsoflegalpositivism:islargelysubjecttothetemporalnatureoflawand themoralshortcomingsofmane.g.WhatifCalifornialawstatedthatitislegalto killSenatorsofNewYorkinthestate?WouldSirhanSirhannothavefaced punishmentforshootingRFK? LegalPositivismalsointroduces"formalguilt"whichsaysthatpeoplemusthave knowledgeoftheproblemandthefreewilltochoosetodoit. NaturalLaw Acorollarytotheschooloflegalpositivismistheconceptofnaturallaw.Natural lawpositsthatinadditiontopositivelaw,peoplearealsogovernedbynaturallaw andthathumanshaveanumberofrights.NaturalLawisofteninterpretedwhere positivelawisnotsufficienttocoveragivensituatione.g.TheDeclarationof Independence;NuremburgTrials. ReligiousLaw Sourceofethicsisfaith,scripture.Problemsariseintranslation,interpretation,and temporalitye.g.Bloodtransfusion,nuclearweapons. Handout:1Corinthians,Ch.6,verses9,10illustratesproblemsin interpretationandtranslation. Keyissuesareheldinhowdoreligionsrespondtothepreviouschallenges,as languagesare"dead"andwithnonfluidmeanings. ForMonday:Producealistoflawsthatshouldnothavebeenandreasonswhy. Completehandout:Theis/oughtproblem. ...
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