APUSH-Reconstruction-Era (2) - REBUILDING the South...

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Unformatted text preview: REBUILDING the South RESTORING the Union RESTRUCTURING Southern society Key Questions 1. How do we bring the South back into the Union? 2. How do we rebuild the South after its destruction during the war? 4. What branch of government should control the process of Reconstruction? 3. How do we integrate and protect newlyemancipated black freedmen? “With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation’s wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.” Abraham Lincoln, President Lincoln’s Plan 10% Plan * Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (December 8, 1863) * “Restore, not “reconstruct” * Presidential control - he didn’t consult Congress regarding Reconstruction. * States had just been in rebellion … Union just needed to be restored asap * Pardon to all but the highest ranking military and civilian Confederate officers. * When 10% of a state’s voting population in the 1860 election had taken an oath of loyalty, pledged to abide by emancipation and established a President Lincoln’s Plan 1864/65 “Lincoln Governments” formed in TN, LA, AR * These 3 states were readmitted/restor ed to the Union * Their gov’ts were weak and dependent on the Northern army for Wade-Davis Bill (1864) Congress feared restoration of planter aristocracy & potential reenslavement of blacks Senator Benjamin Wade (R-OH) Bill would increase 10% requirement to 50% of the number of 1860 voters to take an “iron clad” oath of allegiance (swearing they had Congressman Henry W. Davis (R-MD) never voluntarily aided the rebellion ). Would require a state constitutional convention before the election of state officials, and new state Wade-Davis Bill (1864) Congress sees the states as “conquered provinces,” not just states in rebellion. States had broken their constitutional ties and were no more than territories with conditions of readmission to be determined solely by Congress. Senator Charles Sumner of MA & Congressman Thaddeus Stevens of PA– Radicals”] LINCOLN Pocket President President VETOES! Lincoln Lincoln Veto Wade-Davis Wade-Davis Bill Provisions in Lincoln’s Plan for Freed Slaves None – Lincoln believed states should dictate Did compromise with Congress though and create the Freedman’s Bureau - Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands. Primitive “welfare” agency – food, clothes, medical care, finding jobs, education Many former northern abolitionists risked their Freedmen’s Bureau School Primary success is in education Freedmen’s Bureau Seen Through Southern Eyes Plenty to eat and nothing to do. CARPETBAG GOVERNMENTS • Carpetbaggers were Northern Republicans who came South during Reconstruction and held office in the new Southern governments – A derogatory term – meant they were poor whites who could fit all their belongings into one bag & came to take advantage of the South • Scalawags were Southerners who supported Reconstruction and carpetbaggers • Carpetbag gov’ts had reputation for corruption BUT did build many schools and help rebuild the South Capture of Jefferson Davis May 10, 1865 Jeff Davis Under Arrest Presidential Reconstruction Andrew -A southerner who didn’t Johnson Jacksonian Democrat. understand the North, Anti-Aristocrat. -A Tennessean who had earned the White Supremacist; most distrust of the S, overtly racist P ever -A D who had never been accepted Agreed with Lincoln by the Rs, that states had never legally left theelected Union. -A P who had never been to office “Damn the negroes! I am fighting these -“The wrong man in the wrong place traitorous aristocrats, at their the wrong time.” masters!” President Johnson’s Plan (10%+) Like Lincoln, “restore, not “reconstruct” / more lenient Put into action while Congress out of session: Appointed provisional governors for all the Confederate states & ordered to hold conventions to write new state constitutions New constitutions must REPEAL ordinances of secession, REPUDIATE war debts (meaning North wouldn’t pay any Southern debt) & RATIFY 13TH Amendment in order to be READMITTED Offered amnesty upon simple oath to all except President Johnson’s Plan….. • Provisions for freedmen: – None, didn’t compromise with Congress like Lincoln Lincoln did – “This is a country for white men…..” • RESULTS: – All Southern states back in by December – 13th Amendment ratified – Planter aristocrats who had been pardoned got back their political power • Republicans were outraged that planter elite were back in power in the “New South” and refused to seat delegates to Congress from the southern states – Revival of southern defiance in the Post-war South with the BLACK CODES Black Codes in the Post-War South Purpose: * * Guarantee stable labor supply now that blacks were emancipated. * Restore preemancipation system of race relations. Forced many blacks to BLACK CODES (based on former Slave Codes) • Purpose: to keep former slaves oppressed and disenfranchise them • Examples of restrictions for freedmen: – Can’t vote; can’t hold office – Can’t serve on juries or testify against whites – Can’t own guns; can’t own land – Can’t go to school – Must have a job or go to jail - So… many wound up working on the same land Ratified in December, 1865. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States or any place subject to their jurisdiction. CONGRESS shall have power to The Civil War Amendments • 13th Amendment – FREED all former slaves; abolished slavery nationwide – December 1865 • 14th Amendment – MEN … former slaves are granted citizenship & equal protection of laws – July 1868 • 15th Amendment – VOTE … black men got right to vote. – July 1870 Congress Breaks with the President Congress bars newly-elected Southern Congressional delegates. Fear the power of a restored South. February, 1866 President vetoed bill to extend the life of the Freedmen’s Bureau. Congress passes CIVIL RIGHTS ACT in March, 1866 to grant citizenship to blacks & outlaw Black Codes Johnson vetoed it. “Dead Dog Congress passed both bills over of the White House” Johnson’s vetoes 1st time in 14 th Amendment Ratified in July, 1868. – blacks are citizens and entitled to equal protection under the law 1. Provides a constitutional guarantee of the rights of citizenship & security of freed people. 2. Insures against new Confederate political power – How? Thaddeus Stevens R (PA) House Charles Sumner R (MA) Senate Radicals and Southern • They are reactingLand to the white supremacy of the S and have a desire to punish South & wrest control from former wealthy landowner leaders. • Desire to confiscate Southern land and redistribute to slaves • “40 acres & a mule” • Some southern land had been redistributed by Stanton & Sherman – 40 acres in SC & GA to 40,000 freedmen … later rescinded by Johnson The Balance of Power in Congress State White Citizens Freedmen SC 291,000 411,000 MS 353,000 436,000 LA 357,000 350,000 GA 591,000 465,000 AL 596,000 437,000 VA 719,000 533,000 NC 631,000 331,000 The 1866 Congressional Elections A referendum on Radical Reconstruction. Johnson made an ill-conceived propaganda tour around the country to push his plan. Republicans won a 3-1 veto-proof majority in both houses and gained control of every northern Johnson’s “Swing around the Circle” Radical Plan for Radicals seek full & complete rights for Readmission blacks with federal gov’t in control (14th & 15th Amendments); outraged by the Black Codes! Moderates (majority in Congress) were just trying to keep states from infringing basic rights of blacks. Required new state constitutions which included black suffrage and ratification of the 13th and 14th Amendments. By 1870 – 15th Amendment ratified. Why necessary in light of 14th Am.? Reconstruction Acts of 1867 Military Reconstruction Act * Restart Reconstruction in the 10 Southern states that refused to ratify the 14th Amendment. * Divide the 10 “unreconstructed states” into 5 military districts. * Each has military governor * 20,000 troops * TN was first Southern state back in & thus escaped military reconstruction * Lasted until 1868 in all but three Southern states Reconstruction Acts of 1867 Tenure of Office Act of 1867 Tenure of Office Act * The President could not remove any officials [esp. Cabinet members] without the Senate’s consent, if the position originally required Senate approval. Designed to protect radical members of Lincoln’s gov’t. Was this law constitutional? Edwin Stanton, Sec. of War Limitations of Radical Reconstruction No land or education was guaranteed to freedmen Belief that creating an electorate (giving blacks citizenship & vote) would be enough to protect freedmen’s rights. Questionable legality of military rule: Ex parte Milligan – Supreme Court had ruled that military tribunals could not try civilians even during wartime if civil Southern Resentment & Resistance • “Scalawags” and “Carpetbaggers” – Accusations of corruption • Ku Klux Klan, TN, 1866 – Terrorists that targeted blacks, carpetbaggers, teachers in black schools, Radical Republicans – Used lynching to establish control – Main goal is disenfranchisement of blacks – How else were blacks disenfranchised? OTHER METHODS USED TO DENY VOTING RIGHTS • Literacy Tests – To check reading ability; blacks got harder tests than whites and failed • Poll Taxes – Had to pay to vote • Grandfather Clauses – IF your grandfather could vote at the end of the Civil War, you could be exempted from literacy tests and poll taxes BUT … • SO, who will get elected into Southern gov’ts? • Note: 15th Amendment says nothing about these practices and says nothing about blacks being allowed to hold office President Johnson’s Impeachment Johnson removed Stanton in February, 1868. Johnson dismissed and replaced generals in the field who were more sympathetic to Radical Reconstruction. The House impeached him on February 24 before even drawing up the charges by a vote of 126 – 47! The Senate Trial 11 week trial. Johnson acquitted 35 to 19 (one short of required 2/3 vote). The 1868 Republican Ticket The 1868 Democratic Ticket Waving the Bloody Shirt! “Vote as you Shot!” 1868 Presidential Election Grant’s popular vote low-won due to black vote. 3 Southern state votes not even counted – MS, TX, V President Ulysses S. Grant 15th Amendment Ratified in 1870. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Women’s rights groups were furious that they were not granted the vote! Many, including Anthony, abandoned the movement for African Grant Administration Scandals Grant presided over an era of unprecedented growth and corruption. Known as Era of …? * Credit Mobilier Scandal. * Whiskey Ring. * The “Indian Ring.” 1872 Presidential Election Popular Vote for President: 1872 Reasons Northern Support for Reconstruction Wanes “Grantism” & corruption. Panic of 1873 [6-year depression] Concern over westward expansion and Indian wars. And They Say He Wants a Third Term 1876 Presidential Tickets 1876 Presidential Election The Political Crisis of 1877 “Corrupt Bargain” Part II????? • Electoral commission of 15 set up to deal with the disputed votes from FL, LA, SC – From Senate, House & Supreme Court – Voted on party lines…. – 8 Republicans & 7 Democrats The “Compromise” of 1877 • Hayes, R gets the P • Troops to be withdrawn from S • Southerner will become Postmaster General • Republicans promise federal $ for internal improvements in S • RECONSTRUCTIO N ENDS! Sharecropping Sharecropping • Sharecroppers – Freedmen who farmed land owned by someone else (former masters in most cases) in return for a share of the profit from the crops • Cropper got a cabin, mule, tools, and small plot of land to farm • Crop Lien Laws in place - if cropper owed money to landowner for cash loans, use of tools, fertilizer, etc., owner has a lien; cropper couldn’t he couldn’t leave until the debt was paid off --- also known as “debt peonage” System keeps blacks trapped on plantations: • Got charged up to 400% interest on supplies purchased (fertilizer, food for farm animals, etc.) • Fall into debt & trapped on land until debts paid Establishment of Historically Black Colleges in the South Black & White Political Participation Black Senate & House Delegates Colored Rule in the South? The “Invisible Empire of the South” • Lynching • Ida B. Wells Intimidation The Failure of Federal Enforcement Force Acts of 1870 & 1871 [to stop the lynchings - also known as the KKK Act]. “The Lost Cause” philosophy Pro-Confederate patriotism Redeemers (prewar Democrats and Union Whigs) Wanted to oust freedmen, carpetbaggers & scalawags The Civil Rights Act of 1875 Crime for any individual to deny full & equal use of public conveyances and public places. (Last attempt of Radicals) Prohibited discrimination in jury selection. Shortcoming lacked a strong enforcement mechanism. No new civil rights act was attempted for 90 years! Pronounced unconstitutional in Civil Rights Cases of 1883 THE “NEW SOUTH” • After abandonment of Republican Reconstruction, blacks were left friendless in South • White Ds resume power (the “Redeemers”) • The term “redemption” as used during Reconstruction referred to the return of the South to white rule in the post-Reconstruction period. • Southern Democrats took the name Redeemers and promised to replace Reconstruction governments with “home SUBJUGATION IN THE NEW SOUTH • Political Subjugation: – Legal codes of segregation appear – JIM CROW laws – Also – disenfranchisement through voterregistration laws, literacy tests, poll taxes, grandfather clauses, etc. – South’s segregation validated by Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896 • “Separate but equal” doctrine… separate, but equal, schools/facilities are constitutional • Economic Subjugation: – Blacks forced into sharecropping/tenant farming “JIM CROW” Jim Crow - not actually a person, but the subject of a song performed by Thomas Dartmouth “Daddy” Rice. Rice was a white man who performed in blackface. Rice denigrated Blacks through his music, his stereotypical behavior, and his rude jokes. “Jump Jim Crow” was a bona fide hit among Caucasian Americans in the early 19th century. The lyrics express several racist sentiments. First, Jim Crow is satisfied with his lot as a slave. He is sexually promiscuous. He is also ignorant, and the song is usually sung in “supposed” slave dialect. Jim Crow laws refer to the segregation laws in the South from Reconstruction to the 1960s. More Stereotyping • “Birth of a Nation” • Brute • Mammy • Tom RECONSTRUCTION – A FAILURE OR A SUCCESS? • Traditional view has been that it was a failure: – “The Tragic Era” – “The Blackout of Honest Government” • Justify these 3 reasons given by historians for the failure of Reconstruction to help freedmen find their place in American life: 1.Confused priorities 2.Opposition from Southern whites 3.Federal gov’ts unwillingness to go the distance to accomplish its goals Reconstruction a Success? • “Black Reconstruction” is how revisionist historians view the era – A more positive characterization? • What evidence is there that goals of education, economic development & establishing a sense of community were achieved? • How did Black Reconstruction pave the way for the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s? ...
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