CH 101 notes 11-2

CH 101 notes 11-2 - Aqueous Solutions Electrolytes...

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Substances whose aqueous solutions conduct electricity. Electrolytes Nonelectrolytes Substances whose aqueous solutions do NOT conduct electricity. (-) Electrode (+) Electrode - + Solution (+) electrode Anions migrate to Cations migrate to (-) electrode Section 10.5 Aqueous Solutions Ions are required to conduct electricity. IONS Molecules Electrolyte or Non-electrolyte ? Section 10.5 How many ions do you see? none Nonelectrolyte : -does not conduct -of all that dissolves, NO ne dissolves as IONS . Section 10.5 Molecular Compounds: sugar, Cl 2 , caffeine H C C C C C O O H H H O H H O H H 2 C H O H O CH 2 C H 2 C H O H H H C C C O H O H O O H N N N N O O H 3 C CH 3 CH 3 - - - - - + + + + + + + 1- - Electrolyte or Non-electrolyte ? Section 10.5 How many ions do you see? all Electrolyte : -Conducts electricity -of all that dissolves, ALL dissolves as IONS . Section 10.5 Soluble Ionic Compounds: Discussion Forthcoming (Table 10.4, page 231 CAMS) MgSO 4 (s) Æ Mg 2+ (aq) + SO 4 2- (aq) Strong Acids: HCl, HBr, HI, HNO 3 , HClO 4 , H 2 SO 4 (Table 12.3, page 282 CAMS) H 2 SO 4 (aq) + H 2 O(l) Æ H 3 O 1+ (aq) + HSO 4 1- (aq) a) CuSO 4 b) (CH 3 ) 2 CHOH c) NH 4 Cl d) HClO 4 e) NaOH Predict whether the following are electrolytes ( E ) or nonelectrolyte ( N ) Section 10.5 E ionic N molecular E SA E ionic E ionic molecular ionic & SA
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Decide if each of the following substances are electrolytes or non-electrolytes. K 2 SO 4 CH 3 OH NH 4 C 2 H 3 O 2 Section 10.5 HBr Section 10.7 Dissolution: the process by which ionic substances dissolve in water. Ba 2+ (aq) + C 2 H 3 O 2 1- (aq) dissolution H 2 0 How do you balance this equation (i.e., where does the 2 go?) 2 Important : subscript of solid becomes coefficient of aq ion. Ba(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 (s) Barium acetate K = [Na 1+ ] [Cl 1- ] [NaCl] [Na 1+ ] [Cl 1- ] 1 = NaCl (s) Na 1+ (aq)+ Cl 1- (aq) K = [Na 1+ ] [Cl 1- ] >> 1 sp s olubility p roduct constant (equilibrium constant for solubility) Section 10.9 How much will dissolve? – K sp tells us Means a lot of product. Means NaCl(s) dissolves extensively in water to make Na 1+ and Cl 1- ions E Reaction Coordinate NaCl(s) Na 1+ , Cl 1- AgCl (s) Ag 1+ (aq)+ Cl 1- (aq) [Ag 1+ ] [Cl 1- ] 1 K = K sp = [Ag 1+ ] [Cl 1- ] = 1.8 X 10 -10 << 1 Section 10.9 What does this K sp <<1 mean?
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