MGT2200 - Leadership Notes - First Half - Chapter 1 Week 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

MGT2200 - Leadership Notes - First Half - Chapter 1 Week 2...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1 Week 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 As a young politician, Abraham Lincoln once provoked an opponent to tears by using his expert communication skil 1 Interest in Abraham Lincoln's leadership swelled with the release of Steven Spielberg's 2012 historical film Lincoln 1 The public trust in leaders may be at an all-time low. Referring to the dire economic situation that followed the et 1 THE NEED FOR LEADERSHIP 1 Many of us think of leadership in a way similar to what U.S. Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart said about obsce 1 Yet there are good leaders working in every organization, large and small. In fact, quality leadership is all around u 1 Before we can examine what makes an effective leader, we need to know what leadership means. Scholars and o 1 There is some evidence that people do pin their hopes on leaders in ways that are not always realistic. Think abou 1 Particularly when times are tough, people often look to a grand, charismatic type of leader to alleviate fear and u 1 Leadership Defined 1 Leadership studies are an evolving discipline, and the concept of leadership will continue to develop. For the purpo 1 Leadership an influence relationship among leaders and followers who intend real 1 Exhibit 1.1 summarizes the key elements in this definition. Leadership involves influence; it occurs among peop 1 Also, leadership is a people activity and is distinct from administrative paperwork or planning activities. Leadershi 1 One stereotype is that leaders are somehow different, that they are above others; however, in reality, the quali 1 Everyday Leadership 1 Using this definition of leadership makes clear that leadership can come from anyone. When we stop equating lead 1 • Clinical psychologist Barbara Van Dahlen was working primarily with children in the Washington, D.C., area whe 1 • During his five years working as a car salesman, Robert Chambers was disgusted by how some dealers and fina 1 • Wendy Kopp was a senior at Princeton University when she first came up with the idea of a sort of “Peace Co 1 NEW LEADER ACTION MEMO 1 As a leader, you can recognize opportunities for leadership and act to influence others and bring about changes for 1 There are opportunities for leadership all around us that involve influence and change toward a desired goal or 1 THE NEW REALITY FOR LEADERS 1 Social media. Globalization. Mobile commerce. Geopolitical wars. Renewable technologies and smart machines. Ou 1 Some historians and other scholars believe our world is undergoing a transformation more profound and far-reac 1 Paradigm a shared mindset that represents a fundamental way of thinking about 1 Although many leaders are still operating from an old-paradigm mindset, as outlined in the first column of Exhibit 1 From Stabilizer to Change Manager 1 In the past, many leaders assumed that if they could just keep things running on a steady, even keel, the organizatio 1 • A powerful earthquake in Japan in 2011 triggered massive tsunami waves that damaged the nuclear reactors a 1 • The Arab Spring, a revolutionary wave of protests in the Arab world that began in late 2010, has created a tumu 1 • In the European Union (EU), Spain, Ireland, and particularly Greece have all had trouble paying their debts, lead 1 • Meanwhile, the United States has faced its own debt crisis, and the fallout from the meltdown in the mortgage 1 Most leaders, whether in business, politics, the military, education, social services, the arts, or the world of sports 1 Today's best leaders accept the inevitability of change and crisis and tap into them as potential sources of energy 1 From Controller to Facilitator 1 Leaders in powerful positions once believed strict control was needed for the organization to function efficiently an 1 Today, the old assumptions about the distribution of power are no longer valid. An emphasis on control and rigidi 1 One reason for this is that the financial basis of today's economy is becoming information rather than the tangibl 1 IN THE LEAD Vineet Nayar, HCL Technologies 1 HCL Technologies is a leading global IT services and software development company and India's fourth largest IT se 1 What Nayar did was revolutionary: He organized the company on the principle of “employees first, customers sec 1 Guided by the EFCS philosophy, HCL's revenues have grown by over 3.6 times and net income has increased by 91 ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 From Competitor to Collaborator 1 Social media has “put connectivity on steroids,” blurring and sometimes obliterating boundaries within and betwee 1 Effective leaders also work collaboratively with suppliers, customers, governments, universities, and other organiz 1 Collaboration presents greater leadership challenges than did the old concept of competition. Leaders first have t 1 NEW LEADER ACTION MEMO 1 Go to Leader's Self-Insight 1.1 to learn about your own “intelligence” for dealing with collaboration and with the ot 1 From Diversity Avoider to Diversity Promoter 1 Many of today's organizations were built on assumptions of uniformity, separation, and specialization. People who 1 Bringing diversity into the organization is the way to attract the best human talent and develop an organizational 1 From Hero to Humble 1 Another shift is the move from celebrating the “leader-as-hero” to recognizing the hard-working behind-the-scene 1 One reason for the shift from hero to humble is that it is less and less realistic for an individual leader to meet all th 1 Jim Collins, author of Good to Great and Great by Choice, calls this new breed “Level 5 leaders.”33 In contrast to t 1 NEW LEADER ACTION MEMO As a leader, you can respond to the reality of change and crisis, the nee 1 These leaders are characterized by an almost complete lack of ego, coupled with a fierce resolve to do what is best 1 HOW LEADERSHIP DIFFERS FROM MANAGEMENT 1 Management can be defined as the attainment of organizational goals in an effective and efficient manner through 1 Management the attainment of organizational goals in an effective and efficient man 1 NEW LEADER ACTION MEMO You can evaluate your own leadership potential by completing the quiz 1 Exhibit 1.3 compares management to leadership in five areas crucial to organizational performance—providing dir 1 Providing Direction 1 Both leadership and management are concerned with providing direction for the organization, but there are differe 1 A vision is a picture of an ambitious, desirable future for the organization or team. It can be as lofty as Motorola's 1 Vision a picture of an ambitious, desirable future for the organization or team 1 Aligning Followers 1 Management entails organizing a structure to accomplish the plan; staffing the structure with employees; and deve 1 Leadership provides learning opportunities so people can expand their minds and abilities and assume responsib 1 Building Relationships 1 In terms of relationships, management focuses on getting the most results out of people so that production goals a 1 Whereas the management relationship is based on position and formal authority, leadership is a relationship bas 1 Developing Personal Leadership Qualities 1 Leadership is more than a set of skills; it relies on a number of subtle personal qualities that are hard to see but tha 1 NEW LEADER ACTION MEMO As a leader, you can awaken your leadership qualities of enthusiasm, in 1 Developing leadership qualities takes work. For leadership to happen, leaders may have to undergo a journey of s 1 True leaders tend to have open minds that welcome new ideas rather than closed minds that criticize new ideas. 1 The differences between management and leadership create two differing outcomes, as illustrated at the bottom o 1 EVOLVING THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP 1 To understand leadership as it is viewed and practiced today, it is important to recognize that the concept of leader 1 Historical Overview of Major Approaches 1 The various leadership theories can be categorized into six basic approaches, each of which is briefly described in t 1 Great Man Theories This is the granddaddy of leadership concepts. The earliest studies of leadership adopted the b 1 Trait Theories Studies of these larger-than-life leaders spurred research into the various traits that defined a leader 1 Behavior Theories The failure to identify a universal set of leadership traits led researchers in the early 1950s to be 1 Contingency Theories Researchers next began to consider the contextual and situational variables that influence w 1 Influence Theories These theories examine influence processes between leaders and followers. One primary topic ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ### ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Relational Theories Since the late 1970s, many ideas of leadership have focused on the relational aspect, that is, ho 1 Other important relational topics covered in various chapters of the text include the personal qualities that leade 1 A Model of Leadership Evolution 1 Exhibit 1.4 provides a framework for examining the evolution of leadership from the early Great Man theories to to 1 Leadership Era 1 This era may be conceptualized as pre-industrial and pre-bureaucratic. Most organizations were sm 1 Leadership Era 2 In Era 2, we see the emergence of hierarchy and bureaucracy. Although the world remains stable, 1 The rational manager was well-suited to a stable environment. The behavior and contingency theories worked her 1 Leadership Era 3 This era represented a tremendous shock to managers in North America and Europe. Suddenly, th 1 NEW LEADER ACTION MEMO 1 As a leader, you can use the leadership skills that fit the correct era for your organization. You can use influence and 1 This is the era of the team leader and the change leader. Influence was important because of the need to change 1 Leadership Era 4 Enter the digital, mobile, social-media age. It seems that everything is changing, and changing fast 1 Agile leader a leader who is open to learning and change and encourages the growt 1 Implications The flow from Great Man leadership to rational management to team leadership to agile leadership ill 1 LEADERSHIP CAN BE LEARNED 1 NEW LEADER ACTION MEMO 1 Leader's Self-Insight 1.3 gives you a chance to test your people skills and see if there are areas you need to work on 1 Many leaders are caught in the transition between the practices and principles that defined the industrial era and t 1 Leader Fatal Flaws 1 One of the most important aspects of shifting to the new paradigm of leadership is intentionally using soft, interpe 1 Derailment a phenomenon in which a manager with an impressive track record rea 1 Researchers at the Center for Creative Leadership in Greensboro, North Carolina, have been looking at what caus 1 Leader Good Behaviors 1 The best leaders, at all levels, are those who are genuinely interested in other people and find ways to bring out th 1 N THE LEAD Google 1 In 2013, Google was named the best company to work for by Fortune magazine for the fourth year in a row. Being 1 One thing it discovered is that good leaders make a tremendous difference. Google looked at what successful lea 1 Google discovered that employees want leaders who listen to them, build positive and productive relationships, a 1 Google's Eight Rules for Good Leader Behavior 1 1. Be a good coach. 1 2. Empower your team and don't micromanage. 1 3. Express interest in team members' success and personal well-being. 1 4. Don't be a sissy. Be productive and results-oriented. 1 6. 5. Be your a good communicator and listen to your team. Help employees with career 1 development. 1 7. Have a clear vision and strategy for the team. 1 8. Have key technical skills so you can help advise the team.49 1 NEW LEADER ACTION MEMO 1 As a leader, you can cultivate your people skills to avoid executive derailment. You can treat others with kindness, in 1 The skills on Google's list of desirable behaviors can help leaders avoid the fatal flaws that derail careers. In additi 1 MASTERING THE ART AND SCIENCE OF LEADERSHIP 1 “I suspect that the true heroes are largely unsung and prefer to remain that way. They prefer to give credit to other 1 Howard Gardner, Harvard Psychologist 1 There's an age-old question: Are leaders born or made? In one survey, 19 percent of top executives said leaders are 1 Leadership can be learned, but it is important to remember that leadership is both an art and a science. It is an ar ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 Knowing about leadership research helps people analyze situations from a variety of perspectives and learn how 1 Many people have never tried to be a leader because they have no understanding of what leaders actually do. The 1 ORGANIZATION OF THIS BOOK 1 The plan for this book reflects the shift to a new paradigm summarized in Exhibit 1.2 and the discussion of manage 1 Part 1 introduces leadership, its importance, and the transition to a new leadership paradigm. Part 2 explores bas 1 Parts 3, 4, and 5 focus on leadership perspectives that reflect the paradigm shift to the turbulent, unpredictable n 1 Part 5 brings together all of these ideas to examine the leader as builder of a social architecture that can help an 1 Taken together, the sections and chapters paint a complete portrait of the leadership experience as it has evolved 1 LEADERSHIP ESSENTIALS 1 • This chapter introduced the concept of leadership and explained how individuals can grow as leaders. Leadersh 1 • Concepts of leadership have evolved over time. Major research approaches include Great Man theories, trait th 1 • The biggest challenge facing leaders today is the changing world that wants a new paradigm of leadership. The 1 • The “soft” skills of leadership complement the “hard” skills of management, and both are needed to effectively 1 2 Virginia Rometty spent 30 years climbing the ranks at IBM before becoming the company's first female CEO in Janu 2 It is likely that many of Rometty's traits are shared by other leaders who have attained higher levels in organizatio 2 This chapter first examines the evolution of the trait approach and the importance of leaders understanding and 2 THE TRAIT APPROACH 2 Traits are the distinguishing personal characteristics of a leader, such as intelligence, honesty, self-confidence, and 2 Traits the distinguishing personal characteristics of a leader, such as intelligen 2 Great Man approach a leadership perspective that sought to identify the inherited traits lead 2 Nevertheless, with the advancement of the field of psychology during the 1940s and 1950s, trait approach research 2 In a 1948 literature review,4 Stogdill examined more than 100 studies based on the trait approach. He uncovered 2 Many researchers discontinued their efforts to identify leadership traits in light of Stogdill's 1948 findings and tur 2 In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in examining leadership tr 2 In summary, trait research has been an important part of leadership studies throu 2 Exhibit 2.1 presents some of the traits and their respective categories that have b 2 Optimism and Self-Confidence Recent research points to a positive outlook and a 2 Optimism a tendency to see the positive side of things and exp 2 a tendency to see the positive side of things and expect that things will turn out wel 2 Self-confidence assurance in one's own judgments, decision making 2 assurance in one's own judgments, decision making, ideas, and capabilities 2 A related characteristic is having a positive attitude about oneself. Leaders who know themselves develop self-con 2 NEW LEADER ACTION MEMO People generally prefer to follow leaders who are optimistic rather than 2 Active leaders need self-confidence and optimism. How many of us willingly follow someone who is jaded and p 2 Honesty and Integrity Positive attitudes have to be tempered by strong ethics or leaders can get into trouble. Consi 2 NEW LEADER ACTION MEMO As a leader, you can develop the personal traits of self-confidence, inte 2 Effective leaders are ethical leaders. One aspect of being an ethical leader is being honest with followers, custom 2 Honesty truthfulness and nondeception 2 Integrity the quality of being whole, integrated, and acting in accordance with so 2 the quality of being whole, integrated, and acting in accordance with solid ethical principles 2 Sadly, trust is sorely lacking in many organizations following years of corporate scandals and rampant greed. Lead 2 Honesty is absolutely essential to leadership. After all, if we are willing to follow someone, whether it be into battle 2 Drive Another characteristic considered essential for effective leadership is drive. Leaders often are responsible for 2 Drive high motivation that creates a high effort level by a leader ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## ## 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 A strong drive is also associated with high energy. Leaders work long hours over many years. They have stamina a 2 IN THE LEAD Marissa Mayer, Yahoo 2 Marissa Mayer has set herself some tough goals as the new president and CEO of Yahoo. But tough is part of Maye 2 Even in high school, Mayer was known as an overachiever who refused to settle for less than the best from herse 2 Working 100-hour weeks certainly isn't necessary for effective leadership, but all leaders have to display drive an 2 In Chapter 4, we will further consider individual characteristics and qualities that play a role in leadership effectiv 2 KNOW YOUR STRENGTHS 2 Some people tend to think a leader should have a complete set of skills, characteristics, and abilities to handle any 2 Everyone has strengths, but many leaders fail to recognize and apply them, often because they are hampered by 2 What Are Strengths? 2 A strength arises from a natural talent that has been supported and reinforced with knowledge and skills.25 Talent 2 Strength a natural talent or ability that has been supported and reinforced with 2 One neat thing about understanding your strengths is the philosophy “concentrate on your strengths, not your w 2 How does a leader know which traits or behavior patterns can be turned into strengths? Warren Buffett recomm 2 IN THE LEAD Warren Buffett, Berkshire Hathaway 2 Warren Buffett says he finds investing so much fun that he would do it for free. Buffett tried other work early in his 2 Each year, Buffett hosts in his hometown of Omaha, Nebraska, about 160 business students from universities aro 2 How did he know that his wiring fit investing? The key was his love for it. His career advice is to find work or a ca 2 Matching Strengths with Roles 2 Recent research suggests that different leader strengths might be better suited to different types of leadership role 2 The operational role is the closest to a traditional, vertically oriented management role, where an executive has 2 Operational role a vertically oriented leadership role in which an executive has direct co 2 NEW LEADER ACTION MEMO 2 As a leader, you can understand the type of leadership role in w...
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