Chapter 9 - Chapter 9 Intelligence Testing 9.1 Measuring...

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Chapter 9 – Intelligence Testing 9.1 Measuring Intelligence Intelligence and Perception: Galton’s Anthropometric Approach - Leilani Muir – Kept trying to get pregnant but no avail - Doctors said that her fallopian tubes have been surgically removed making her sterile - She did not know about this - She was a victim of the misguided application of intelligence tests - She had an IQ of 64 which was below the 70 point cut-off required for law therefore she was forced sterilization – common practice in 1928 – they would be genetically deemed unfit to and sterilized without consent Sir Francis Galton 1822-1911: - Systematic attempt to measure intelligence in modern era began with him - Believed that because people learn about the world through their senses, those with superior sensory abilities would be more sensitively attuned to the world and able to learn more about it - Sensory abilities should be an indicator of a person’s intelligence - 1884 – created a set of 17 sensory tests – i.e. highest and lowest sound people hear or their ability to tell the difference between objects of slightly different weights - Began testing peoples Anthropometrics – methods of measuring physical and mental variation in humans - Research revealed that people’s abilities on different sensory tests were not correlated with each other – or only very weakly (having exceptional eyesight seemed to signify little about whether one would have exceptional hearing) - Scores on sensory tests did not predict grades (for students) - Galton’s approach to measuring intelligence was generally abandoned Intelligence and thinking – the Stanford - Binet test Intelligence the ability to think, understand, reason, and adapt to or overcome obstacles - Reflects how people reason and solve problems – accumulated knowledge - Binet argued that a child’s test score measured her mental age the average intellectual ability score for children of a specific age
- Stanford-Binet test a test intended to measure innate levels of intelligence - Binet viewed his test as a measure of a child’s current abilities, not a measure of an innate capacity - Intelligence quotient IQ – is calculated by taking a person’s mental age, dividing it by his chronological age, and then multiplying it by 100 E. g. 10 year old scoring the mental age of 7 7/10 x 100 = 70. But if mental and chronological age are the same, they score 100 Adults get progressively less smart as they age. Deviation IQ – for calculating the IQ of adults - The deviation IQ is calculated by comparing an individual’s test score to the average score for other people who are the same age The Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale (WAIS) most common intelligence test for adults - Provides a single IQ for each test taker – Full scale IQ - Breaks down into a general ability index (GAI) and a cognitive proficiency index (CPI) - GAI is computed from scores on the Verbal comprehension and Perceptual Reasoning indices The Wechsler Adult Intelligences Scale Wechsler ( 1939): Adult intelligence Scale:

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