midterm study guide - American Studies 301g America The...

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American Studies 301g: America, The Frontier, and The New West Midterm Study Guide Homestead Act (1864) Lincoln wanted to settle the country so the government gave out large plots of land to people to farm themselves The Homestead Act was a United States Federal law that gave freehold title to 160 acres (about 65 hectares ) of undeveloped land in the American West . The person to whom title was granted had to be at least 21 years of age, and to have built on the section, and lived in for 5 years, a house that was at least 12 by 14 feet (3.6 x 4.3 m) in size. The Act was signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln on May 20 , 1862 . Was in the name of individualism Cherokee Nation v. State of Georgia 1831. The question was “are the Cherokee a separate nation?” The Cherokee were considered a very civilized tribe-could write and do everything that was considered civilized except they were Indian Article 12 of their treaty tried to assimilate them more by trying to make them become cultivators and they would receive gifts. The US will plant American farmers among them as an example It was a problem to the white settlers were such good farmers They refused to become capitalists-they still wanted their culture (assimilation has its limits) There was no question in Americans minds that they and the N.A.’s could share land together In the 1820s gold was discovered in Georgia so the Indians had a larger problem, President Monroe proposed that they give up their land and go west of the Mississippi. John Quincy Adams advised them to go where there were no civilized Americans Jackson said that the Indians were 1 nation not many separate ones and passed removal bill Cherokee sued the US for this removal and they lost. John Marshall (Supreme Court justice) said they are not foreign nation’s cuz they live within the US boundaries so they are “domestic dependent nations” -> dependent so had to do what gov. told them. They cannot sue the gov because only citizens, nations, and states can sue the gov. and Indians were none of these, so case was thrown out. Compromise of 1850 The Compromise of 1850 was a series of laws that resolved the territorial and slavery controversies arising from the Mexican-American War (1846–48). The five laws balanced the interests of the slaveholding states of the South and the free states. California was admitted as a free state, Texas received financial compensation for relinquishing claim to lands west of the Rio Grande in what is now New Mexico , the territory of New Mexico (including present-day Arizona and Utah ) was organized without any specific prohibition of slavery, the slave trade (but not slavery itself) was abolished in Washington, D.C. , and the stringent Fugitive Slave Law was passed, requiring all U.S. citizens to assist in the return of runaway slaves.
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