Experiment 9 Newton’s Second Law How does a cart change its motion when you push and pull on it? You might think that the harder you push on a cart, the faster it goes. Is the cart’s velocity related to the force you apply? Or does the force just change the velocity? Also, what does the mass of the cart have to do with how the motion changes? We know that it takes a much harder push to get a heavy cart moving than a lighter one. A Force Sensor and an Accelerometer will let you measure the force on a cart simultaneously with the cart’s acceleration. The total mass of the cart is easy to vary by adding masses. Using these tools, you can determine how the net force on the cart, its mass, and its acceleration are related. This relationship is Newton’s second law of motion. Figure 1 OBJECTIVES Collect force and acceleration data for a cart as it is moved back and forth. Compare force vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs. Analyze a graph of force vs . acceleration. Determine the relationship between force, mass, and acceleration. MATERIALS Power Macintosh or Windows PC Logger Pro LabPro or Universal Lab Interface low-friction dynamics cart Vernier Force Sensor 0.500 kg mass Vernier 3-axis Accelerometer PRELIMINARY QUESTIONS 1.When you push on an object, how does the magnitude of the force affect its motion? If you pushharder, is the change in motion smaller or larger? Do you think this is a direct or inverse relationship?