Sp2014 PSY/MH 3341.01 Lifespan Development Exam 3 Study Guide. Memory Ch. 8 Define memory -the ability to store and later retrieve information about past events The persistence of learning over time What are the 4 steps in 'information processing’ (p.245)? -Encoding : getting information into our brain -Consolidation : organizing & preparing for storage – effortful -Storage : retain information over time -Retrieval : getting information back out What does ‘dual-store’ memory mean? Short term and long term memory are different Sensory register (lost) attention short term or working memory (lost) effort long term memory Who first proposed it? William James in 1890 Be able to draw the Atkinson-Shiffin model of dual store memory. What was Baddeley’s update of the model? Know the types of memory & specifics of each: sensory register (know iconic and echoic) Sensory Register – will log info, holding it for a fraction of a second as an afterimage, much that strikes the sensory register quickly disappears o Afterimage or echo o Info. picked up by sensory receptors o Iconic or echoic Sensory register : ‘Afterimage or echo’ Environmental info picked up and transformed by sensory receptors – Iconic Visual – Echoic Auditory Short term/working Short-Term Memory – where information moves that you think you will need to remember, can hold a limited amount of information for several seconds o Information in short term memory can come from sensory register or pulled from long term memory o 7 items o aka working memory Working Memory – a mental ‘scratch pad’ that temporarily stores information while actively operating on it changes information into another form (example) think of the numbers 5, 4, 3, 2, 1; now figure the sum Long term Long-Term Memory – a relatively permanent store of information, moves there after rehearsal o Unlimited capacity –holds information for hours, days or years –relatively permanent –‘unlimited’ capacity Conscious (declarative, explicit, semantic, episodic) Explicit – declarative available to our awareness Sensory Register Attention Short term or Working Memory
Hippocampus Semantic -meaning, facts without reference to time or place of learning Episodic -personal, specific experience at a particular time, in a particular space Un-effortful, automatic processing : - space, -time, -frequency Unconscious, procedural, implicit memory & brain structures for each (PFC, hippocampus, cerebellum) Implicit cannot consciously access the memory; see it in behavior Cerebellum Procedural –Motor –‘Muscle memory’ –Skills Balance & Equilibrium What are 3 reasons memory can fail (p. 376-380)? Failure to remember: Encoding - acquisition failure Storage failure - decay Retrieval- access failure Alyssa’s Answers: Encoding/acquisition failure o Unable to hold relevant pieces in short term memory Consolidation failure o Was informed, processed, and organized appropriately but lack strategies for transferring into a long term Storage failure o Did it get to long term – decay o The persistence of learning over time Retrieval failure o
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