Lecture 7 - The Mitochondrion

Lecture 7 - The Mitochondrion - Lecture 7 Background...

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1 The Mitochondrion Biology 1F25 for Biology Non-Majors Lecture 7 Background Reading Textbook, Chapter 3 The People Who Prepared This Lecture Harry Peery Jeff Stuart Fueling the work done by the human cell What happens to the food we eat? Where is oxygen consumed? Where is carbon dioxide produced? Why?
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2 (1) The cell is a factory Builds itself, and bits for other cells Nucleus – manager’s office Ribosomes – assembly lines mRNA - foreman Endoplasmic reticulum - finishing touches Golgi apparatus – packaging Membrane – a wall with lots of doors and antennae Mitochondria – furnace Food – fuel for furnace Metabolism What happens to the food we eat? Where is oxygen consumed? Where is carbon dioxide produced? Why? Making ATP from the energy in food Hamburger Proteins, fats, complex carbohydrates Amino acids, fatty acids, simple carbohydrates (glucose) Absorbed into blood All body tissues Taken up by cells Converted to pyruvate (cytosol) Into mitochondria (if oxygen present) Remains in cytosol (if no oxygen present) and lactate produced
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3 The mitochondrion: little battery of life ~ 1000 per cell Food enters, ATP exits Oxygen enters, carbon dioxide exits Aerobic metabolism Mitochondria come in all shapes and sizes: Long, spherical, or branched and filamentous. Mitochondria move through the cell on cellular microtubules. The red proteins have already been discovered, and the blue question marks are proteins that must exist. Actin filaments also appear to be involved in the transport and movement of mitochondria. When they meet another mitochondrion, they may fuse.
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4 Fusion • Both the inner and outer membranes fuse. • Once fusion occurs, matrix material is exchanged. • mtDNA may be repaired. The matrix is the site of the intermediate and the Krebs cycle steps in the oxidative metabolism of glucose. The granules are one site of calcium storage. What do Mitochondria Do? • Provide most of the ATP used by the cell. This comes mainly from the following biochemical reactions: The intermediate step from pyruvate to acetylCoA The Krebs cycle (also called the citric acid cycle) The beta oxidation of fatty acids Cholesterol, calcium and heme are also produced by mitochondria Is involved in the first step in the production of steroid hormones from cholesterol. Is involved with the regulation of intracellular calcium levels (these are necessary for the function of all cells and for the release of neurotransmitters from neurons). Is the site of heme formation which is especially important in: – Blood forming tissue –L
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5 Heat, radicals and death Is responsible for producing heat in protective brown fat for many animals, including newborn humans. Is responsible for producing heat in skeletal
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This note was uploaded on 06/10/2008 for the course BIOL BIOL-1F25 taught by Professor Peery during the Spring '08 term at Brock University.

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Lecture 7 - The Mitochondrion - Lecture 7 Background...

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