Lecture 10 - The Cellular Basis of Human Metabolism. Digestion Part 2 - Esophagus and Stomach

Lecture 10 - The Cellular Basis of Human Metabolism. Digestion Part 2 - Esophagus and Stomach

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1 The Cellular Basis of Human Metabolism. Digestion Part 2: Esophagus and Stomach Biology 1F25 for Biology Non-Majors Lecture 10 Background Reading Textbook, Chapter 8 The People Who Prepared This Lecture Harry Peery Jeff Stuart The Esophagus
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2 The Esophagus • Goes from the pharynx to the stomach • Is so muscular that you can swallow water upside down. • Is normally the diameter of a penny when empty. Once in the esophagus, food is moved through the digestive tract by involuntary smooth muscle activity. This is called peristalsis. Image from Purves et al., (1998) Life: The Science of Biology , 4th Edition, by Sinauer Associates and WH Freeman Esophagitis – inflammation of the esophagus • Sign: heartburn • Caused by: – Infection (uncommon) – Reflux of gastric juice (very common) In older people, heartburn may be a symptom of an impending heart attack. Always insist that an older person with heartburn see a physician immediately. Peptic Esophagitis • Pepsin & hydrochloric acid (HCl) coming from the stomach causes chemical • This condition is called GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease)
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3 Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Normal In GERD, the cardiac sphincter of the esophagus does not close, permitting gastric contents to reflux into the esophagus. A hiatal hernia occurs when a part of the stomach goes through the esophageal hiatus in the diaphragm (the muscle that separates the thoracic cavity -where the heart and lungs are located - and the abdominal cavity). The cause is a widening of the esophageal hiatus, the diaphragmatic opening (any anatomical opening is called a hiatus , Latin for yawn) through which the esophagus travels on its way to the stomach. Chemical Esophagitis • Accidental or deliberate swallowing of caustic lye or acid (still a common accident with toddlers who get into the cupboards under the sink and drink whatever they find there). • May be so severe that the esophagus is entirely destroyed. Esophageal carcinoma (cancer). It is not common (accounts for only 6% of all cancers), but it is often fatal because it produces no symptoms until too late in the disease.
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4 Carcinoma of Carcinoma of Esophagus Esophagus 5 Stomach Esophagus Francis Farmer died of esophageal carcinoma in 1970 • A gifted actress, she rebelled against the sexism of her time (1930s) and began drinking. • Institutionalized for 7 years, her fictionalized book, Shadowland and the movie Francis based on that book is rife with inaccuracies. Even her “autobiography” ( Will there ever be a morning ) was written by someone else (her close friend) with the idea of selling sensationalism. • What is known is that she died at age 57
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Lecture 10 - The Cellular Basis of Human Metabolism. Digestion Part 2 - Esophagus and Stomach

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