Lecture 18a - Supplementary Information on Autosomal Diseases (Interest Only)

Lecture 18a - Supplementary Information on Autosomal Diseases (Interest Only)

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
1 Lecture 18a Supplementary information on Autosomal Diseases You are not responsible for this information. It will not be on the exam. Rh factor Discovered in the rhesus macaque (pronounced mah- kak) monkey, the Rh factor is a dominant trait. If present , it is a surface protein on all red blood cells. Its function (if there is one) is unknown. The rhesus macaque monkey – usually imported from India where they are very common. Most antibodies are Y- shaped but the artist took artistic license and made them in the shape of arches. Here we see the antibody attaching to an antigen of the red cell. The Antibody-Antigen Interlude Rh or A or B Agglutination is the interaction between antibodies and red blood cells Antibody plus red blood cells results in agglutination (clumping) To the right is a low power image of agglutination using the antibody against the Rh factor. The dark material is the agglutination of the red blood cells. agglutination
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
2 Antigens… • Antigens are any protein (and sometimes plastics and metal, especially gold) that stimulates the production of an antibody. • Antigens are recognized as being either part of oneself or foreign. The immune system Responds… • If “foreign”, the immune system responds by making antibodies against the antigen. • Sometimes, in some patients, the body makes antibodies against its own cells. • This is called an autoimmune disorder. • Rheumatoid arthritis and primary biliary cirrhosis are two examples of autoimmune disorders. By Producing Antibodies… Antibodies are always proteins that attach to the antigen and “tag” the cell so it will be destroyed by white blood cells. Antibodies are produced by specialized cells called plasma cells. Plasma cells have a lot of rough endoplasmic reticulum. From Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 4 th ed., by Abbas et al., WB Saunders, Philadelphia, 2000 Ultrastructural Pathology of the Cell and Matrix, 2 nd ed., by Ghadially. Butterworths, 1982. Note extensive rough endoplasmic reticulum Rh incompatibility can be a problem in pregnancy • It can only be a problem if the mother is Rh negative and the fetus is Rh positive. • There is always some fetal red blood cells in the maternal blood stream. • These are not usually enough to stimulate the production of antibodies by the maternal immune system (however, on rare occasions this may occur). Blood test to determine if a patient is Rh+ or Rh –. In this case, there is clumping (called agglutination) of red cells in response to the presence of antibodies against the Rh factor. The cells are Rh positive and the patient is then Rh +.
Background image of page 2
3 First pregnancy with Rh + fetus During first Rh + pregnancy or after first birth Second pregnancy with Rh + fetus. Fetal red cells are
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 42

Lecture 18a - Supplementary Information on Autosomal Diseases (Interest Only)

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online