Lecture 21 - Introduction to Neoplasia

Lecture 21 - Introduction to Neoplasia - Lecture 21...

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1 Introduction to Neoplasia Biology 1F25 for Biology Non-Majors Lecture 21 Background Reading Textbook, Chapter 19. The People Who Prepared This Lecture Harry Peery Alan Castle Cornelius Ryan (1920-1974) •W ro te The Longest Day (1959) and A Bridge Too Far (1974). • Was diagnosed with prostate cancer in 1970 • Died in November 1974 two months after A Bridge Too Far
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2 Neoplasia, Neoplasms and Oncology Neoplasia (new growth in Latin) is any uncontrolled growth that is uncoordinated with and unresponsive to normal tissue or organ growth signals. Neoplasms are tumours that result from the process of neoplasia. The clinical field of study of neoplasms is called oncology (from Greek, meaning mass or bulk). Neoplasms are a multifactorial type of inheritance • Mendelian inheritance involves one gene. • Multifactorial inheritance involves the following: – There must be more than one gene involved. – There must be at least one environmental factor (and sometimes a combination): • An organism (virus or bacteria) • A chemical • Radiation Two Forms of Neoplasia Benign neoplasms (= benign tumours) Malignant neoplasms (= cancer) While both tumours may look the same, under the microscope they are much different Benign Adenoma Normal Thyroid Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid showing ground glass (Orphan Annie) nuclei Capsule of tumour
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3 In General • Benign tumour cells look somewhat normal – just more of them. • Malignant (cancer) cells look bizarre – with large or strange looking nuclei (such as the Orphan Annie nuclei) and large primitive looking cells. • The nuclei of cancer cells are very large relative to the cytoplasm. 03 A Papanicolaou smear shows malignant uterine cervical cells characterized by large dark-staining nuclei (rust-coloured cells) Note that the nuclei may occupy more space than the cytoplasm (area outside the nucleus). Illustration from Damjanov, I. (2000). Pathology, 2 nd ed. WB Saunders, Philadelphia p. 74 Gross Appearance Benign Malignant 01 Illustration from Damjanov, I. (2000). Pathology, 2 nd ed. WB Saunders, Philadelphia p. 73. Benign Neoplasms • Cells look normal, there are just more of them. • Cell products are normal. • Do not spread to other areas of body - if there are multiple benign tumours, each has arisen independently. • Are not usually life-threatening, unless their secretion or physical presence mechanically blocks an artery or heart or airway.
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4 When Benign Tumours are Life Threatening • Thyroid adenoma secretes high levels of thyroid hormone. – This condition is called thyrotoxicosis (literally, condition of toxic levels of thyroid hormone) – Thyrotoxicosis speeds up the heart to the point where it goes into fibrillation. Benign myxomas of
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This note was uploaded on 06/10/2008 for the course BIOL BIOL-1F25 taught by Professor Peery during the Spring '08 term at Brock University.

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Lecture 21 - Introduction to Neoplasia - Lecture 21...

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