Unformatted text preview: Lecture 22a Lecture 22a Supplementary Information: The Effect of Cancer on Modern History
You are not responsible for this information. It will not be on the exam. Kaiser Friedrich III Rudolph Virchow and Cancer: A Tragedy and a Mystery Kaiser Friedrich III (1831-1888) He was Emperor of Germany for only 90 days in 1888. His death set in motion a series of events that led to WWI, WWII, and the cold war. He was an liberal monarch who wanted to make the German monarchy constitutional as it was in England. Many German aristocrats were very opposed to this and did all they could to thwart his efforts. Leather pocket case belonging to Kaiser Friedrich III 1 But Friedrich Smoked He was a very heavy cigar smoker. He developed a cough and hoarseness a year before he became Emperor. Hohenzollern's Rule The Hohenzollern House was the ruling house of Germany (just as the House of Windsor is the ruling house in Great Britain). The Hohenzollerns had an unwritten rule that if a ruler becomes incapacitated, he must abdicate for the next in line. Pomerania Map of Prussia (grey areas) and Germany (black border) before the end of World War I
Burg Hohenzollern ancestral home of ruling Prussian royal family Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck was the Chancellor of Germany (1871-1890). He was very conservative and did not want a constitutional monarchy and for good reason: the German Kaiser, Wilhelm I, gave him free reign to do what he wanted in both domestic and foreign affairs. Bismarck was having a good time! 2 Bismarck did do some interesting things in his time To deflate domestic socialist (and liberal) influence, he instituted: Health insurance for workers (1883) Workers' Compensation (when injured) (1884) Workers' Retirement pension and disability insurance (1889) So Powerful was Bismarck that he may have influenced the Diagnosis of Friedrich III He knew that if he could incapacitate him or if Friedrich died, Friedrich's son, Wilhelm II, would become Kaiser. He had been manipulating Wilhelm to be an absolute monarch like his grandfather This was 80 years before Tommy Douglas and Canada's first health insurance! Canada' Surgery to remove a cancerous larynx was fatal in 1887 Bismarck knew this and may have persuaded the doctors to make the diagnosis. If he survived, he could be so incapacitated he must abdicate. He would have what he wanted either way. But Friedrich's wife Intervened Victoria (formerly The Princess Royal of England) asked her mother, Queen Victoria, for a laryngologist. Victoria sent her England's finest, Sir England' Morell Mackenzie (1837(18371892) 3 Mackenzie asked Rudolph Virchow for his opinion Mackenzie did not think it was a cancerous lesion. To satisfy his critics, he asked Rudolph Virchow, a famous German pathologist, for his opinion. But Virchow did not equivocally state it was a cancer and so it t d Rudolph Virchow by caricaturist Spy (Leslie Ward) as published in Britain's Vanity Fair Magazine. Pronunciation of Virchow In German, "v"followed by a vowel is pronounced like a soft "f" as in "father." "ow" is pronounced "oh" as in "oh no!" "fir'koh" is the phonetic Virchow was a Physician-Scientist Discoverer Established principles of modern pathology Virchow in 1850 at age 29, 2nd from left 4 He was the first to describe gliomas (tumours of the glial cells of the brain 40 to 50% are glioblastoma tumours of astrocytes) Author His great work, Cellular Pathology, became the foundation of modern pathology with its basic tenet 2 ed., Front cover, 1862. the microscopic
nd Fatal glioblastoma (astrocytoma grade IV) in the temporal lobe Medical Reformer He introduced anatomical pathology as a medical subject to be studied by medical students in colleges of medicine. Innovator He added a fifth sign, functio laesa "disordered function" to Celsus' four cardinal signs of inflammation: rubor et tumor cum calor et dolor (redness and swelling with heat and pain). 5 Human he also made mistakes Some famous ones: Did not believe in bacteria (and so denounced hand washing between patients in 1860 as proposed by Semmelweis). Did not properly diagnose the biopsy taken from Crown Prince Frederick III's throat. III' But was there a reason? This letter written in 1888, is Virchow's diagnosis of the biopsy of the laryngeal growth from Crown Prince Frederick III. His diagnosis is ambiguous, meaning that he considered it not to be cancerous although that could not be ruled out. Bismarck His indecision was a fatal one, for a year later the Crown Prince died of cancer shortly after becoming Emperor. At the same time, the surgery was equally dangerous and Virchow also knew that. Historians are uncertain today what he had in mind by his untypically evasive diagnosis. Or whether Prince Bismarck might have influenced him to keep the actual diagnosis a secret. Frederick III Supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx. This is the cancer Friedrich III most likely had. 6 Kaiser Wilhelm I ruled from 1871-1888 Kaiser Wilhelm II
Kaiser Wilhelm II wanted to do everything himself (unlike his grandfather). But although he was smart, most medical historians believe he had brain damage from a long breech birth. This made him impulsive which led to rash decisions not carefully thought out. Kaiser Wilhelm II ruled from 1888-1918
Future Kaiser Friedrich III Father (left) and Son (right) apart in this photograph and distant in life. Note also the height difference Wilhelm was born in the Palace at Potsdam. But the Future breech birth severed the Kaiser nerves to his left arm. He Wilhelm II never was able to lift a finger or his arm. Worse, because of the severe torsion on his spine, he was in an iron brace Kaiser most of his childhood. His Wilhelm I growth was also stunted.
(seated) Two Emperors
Bismarck manipulated young Wilhelm so that he became alienated from both his mother and father and was determined to be great like his grandfather (who, with Bismarck's help, created the German Empire)
Emperor FranzJosef of Austria (left) and Kaiser Wilhelm II (right) What Wilhelm was Like He could speak 7 languages fluently and write in 5. He loved history and music. He was very polite and kind when he was in meetings. 7 Historical Note
While medical historians believe that Wilhelm II's temperament II' pushed Europe into war, he did not necessarily want it. Once war began, Wilhelm had little to do with the German conduct of the war, as that was the domain of the General Staff. Most of of the world thought the war was being personally conducted by Wilhelm. But he had never been in a war and did not know anything about military tactics. Indeed, many modern historians believe that Wilhelm was little more than a puppet and that it was the generals who ran Germany during the war. Most of the world did not know this including the German citizens. When defeat came in 1918, it was Wilhelm who became the scapegoat for what the generals had done. He was forced to abdicate and leave Germany never to return. The sadness and bitterness in the exKaiser's eyes says it all. The Kaiser in exile at Haus Doorn in the Netherlands, with his second wife and daughters and with his dog. The Legacy
Wilhelm's was forced to abdicate in 1918 and died in exile in the Netherlands in 1941. The House of Hohenzollern still exists and the family never relinquished their claim on the throne of Germany. Although this claim has not been recognized by the present German government, it is possible that a constitutional monarchy will be restored. Prince Georg Friedrich of Prussia, Head of the Prussian Branch of the House of Hohenzollern and future German Kaiser should the monarchy be restored Burg Hohenzollern, the ancestral home of the House Hohenzollern at Hechingen in the Swabian Alps in Baden-Wttemberg. This, the third castle to be built on the site, was constructed in 1845-1867. It is a popular tourist attraction and still owned - but not occupied jointly by both branches of the Hohenzollern family. 8 A castle owned and occupied by the Swabian branch of the Hohenzollerns is Sigmaringen castle, part of the dining hall of which is displayed. It is open for guided tours only during certain times of the year. A family reunion of the House of Hohenzollern at Burg Hohenzollern in 2001. The House was founded in the 11th century and has two main branches, Prussian and Swabian which split in 1214. It is located in the town of Sigmaringen not far from Burg Hohenzollern. Both Burg Hohenzollern and Schloss (Castle) Sigmaringen are southeast of Stuttgart, Germany. The castles are located in BadenWrttemberg. A close-up map is on the next slide. Area in BadenWrttemberg where the castles are located. Just southeast of Stuttgart, Germany Burg Hohenzollern road up the mountain to the castle 9 Why Have a Monarchy at all? It brings in millions from tourism to Great Britain and millions also to Canada. It is a link with history. The British monarchy actually contributes millions to the economy by the products it generates and/or licenses and exports. Both the British, Scandinavian, German and Spanish royal houses do a considerable amount of charitable work in their respective countries for favorite charities. The British monarchy also does some work for some Canadian charities. End of Supplementary Lecture 22a
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- Spring '08
- Human Biology, House of Hohenzollern, Frederick III, German Emperor, Kaiser Wilhelm II, Burg Hohenzollern