Lecture 25a - Supplementary Informations - The Story of Thalidomide

Lecture 25a - Supplementary Informations - The Story of Thalidomide

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1 Lecture 25a Supplementary Information: The Story of Thalidomide You are not responsible for this information. It will not be on the exam. Frances Kelsey, PhD, MD, and the Thalidomide Tragedy A Canadian saves North America • Kelsey was born in Cobble Hill on Vancouver Island,BC, in 1914. Cobble Hill (black circle) birthplace of Frances Kelsey Frances Kelsey went to high school in the Cowichan School District of Vancouver Island. Today, there is a unique self-placed high school located there which is named after her. Students there are responsible for their own learning at their own pace. She frequently went to Lake Cowichan, seen below, to “collect everything from bugs to bird eggs.” “I always knew I would be some kind of scientist,” she says.
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2 Her Education and Family. • BS and MS at McGill • PhD (pharmacology) University of Chicago • Married Dr. Fremont Ellis Kelsey • MD University of Chicago (she also had two daughters while she was in medical school). To the Prairies • She moved with her husband to Vermillion, South Dakota (black circle) Prairie Practitioner and Professor • She practiced medicine in the rural towns of southeastern South Dakota. • She taught at the University of South Dakota medical school (today USD has only 8,000 students). Old Main at the University of South Dakota campus To the FDA • In Chicago, Kelsey had worked on testing new drugs. • When her husband went to Washington DC in 1960, Kelsey got an appointment to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
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3 Her first Assignment • To approve a drug called thalidomide. • The drug seemed harmless and would be an easy routine first assignment for Kelsey who had been at the FDA just one month. Who is Richardson-Merrell? • Richardson-Merrell was created in 1938 when the Vick Chemical Company (headed by its founder’s son, H. Smith Richardson) acquired William S. Merrell company (founded in 1828). The new name reflected the ownership by Richardson of the combined company. History of Thalidomide 1953 - First synthesized in Europe by CIBA. Ciba could find no use for the drug 1954 - Chemie Grünenthal in Germany continued to develop it. Found it helped people to sleep. 1957 - First marketed by Chemie Grünenthal for morning sickness as an over-the-counter (no prescription required) drug in Germany. Effect on the Immune System – Anti-inflammatory –inhibits chemotaxis of lymphocytes and neutrophils – Immunomodulatory – decreases levels of cytokines, TNF-a and IFN-g
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4 Use and Abuse Potential • Induced sleep without side effects to the patient (but was not tried out in pregnant animals to see about an effect on a fetus). • Reduced or eliminated nausea and
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Lecture 25a - Supplementary Informations - The Story of Thalidomide

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