PHIL 262g Lecture Notes - PHIL 262g Culture Of Arete Arete...

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PHIL 262g Culture Of Arete 08/30/07 Arete- Excellence and Virtue, Humans posses Virtue- English narrow a moral notion, notion that has connotations that are based on a different ethical Excellence- English too broad “Culture of Arete” Human Excellence Art of Religious Icons ex: Buddha –Cambodia Christian Imagery- Medieval Kouros Statues- Human being, athletic male youth. First Greek artwork. Religious Text most important to Greeks 1. The Odyssey 2. The Iliad Immortality- Being remembered Competitive Events- the Olympics Evaluate success-public discussion Socrates- Philosopher of Arete, of The Virtues. Interested in truth and wisdom. Doesn’t take money. “He knows that he knows nothing” Wants people to realize that they do not know what excellence and wisdom are. Socratic method- Asking questions to get people to contradict themselves. To make people realize that they do not know what they are talking about. Sophists- people who had tools to train people in argumentation to use in a court of lave to be persuasive. Not interested in truth. . PERSUASION. Charged money. Greek Ethics Socrates Plato Aristotle- Ethicists Ethics- study of virtue, virtues, Arete Modern Ethics- Moral theory, right and wrong
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Excellence- respect and admiration, pride (Greek value) Someone who lacks true belief does not have knowledge The Republic-Justice, broad, modern, related to the law Justice Justice is a property of an individual Justice is the interest of the stronger, belongs to ideology (Marx), comes from the ruling classes telling people to behave in a certain way to serve there own interest Moderation Wisdom Courage PHIL 262g Justice 09/4/07 The Republic Goodness 1. Instrumentally for the sake of further goodness, ex money, surgery 2. Inherently- ex eating ice cream 3. Both- ex. Exercise Justice instrumentally valuable- ex. Appearing to act justly The only point in acting justly is having people think that you are just and do not have to suffer from the effects of injustice. Glocens challenge- Gives a defense and show inherent value of justice…. Why should I be moral? Social contract theory of Justice Hobbes, Locke . . . . State of nature, origin of justice, standard modern theory of Justice Just person is happier than the unjust person . . . Socrates
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“happy”- eudemonia- human flourishing, well being eu- good daimonia- spirit, soul Literally the soul is in good condition ergon- essential function. . . organ compared to soul The Soul- psyche- the mind Essential function- life principal, to superintend, demand, deliberate. . . . govern the body or person TO BE HAPPY YOUR SOUL MUST BE IN GOOD CONDITION FOR UR SOUL TO BE IN GOOD CONDITION IT MUST BE ABLE TO GOVERN WELL . . . . JUSTICE IS A NESSESARY FUNCTION. . . Nature and Structure of the soul No one every does wrong knowingly, wrong action is always the result of ignorance . . ..
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