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bio lab intro - shows a separation in evolution because it...

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Stephen Jabaut January 31 st , 2008 Biology Lab Section 65 Alyssa Nielubowicz Introduction Evolution is the driving force behind the adaption of species to our planet. It is the variation and mutation of genetic material over the course of billions of years. In fact, every organism comes from a common ancestral cell. Over time mutations in DNA lead species separation into different kingdoms, phylums and classes. Today we see these distinctions every day: The difference between a flower and a kangaroo, the difference between a horse and a donkey. Obviously when working scientifically, one must have more proof than just “They Look Different.” There are many techniques that show the relationship between species. One way is to examine the level of immunological reaction of two species. This is done when the antibodies of one organism react with the proteins of another. When the antibodies attach to an amino structure of another organism, it indicates that the antibody does not recognize the structure. This
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Unformatted text preview: shows a separation in evolution because it shows the differences in the structure of amino acids between the two organisms. Another way in which it evolutionary relationships can be uncovered is through determining amino acid residues from peptide sequences. The more two species share common amino acid structure, the more closely they are related. Using gel electrophoresis and double diffusion techniques, it is possible to find and record these relationships. The former consists of taking protein serums from various species and moving them through gel based on charge or size. The charge is determined by the pH of the protein and the denatured size is found using detergents and high temperatures. The latter involves diffusing using wells that are equidistant from one another and will allow one to see antibody reaction. These methods give information about the derivatives of species and the common closeness of one species to another....
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