Pinel7Ch10.FINAL - Chapter 10 Brain Damage and...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–16. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Can the Brain Recover from Damage? Chapter 10 Brain Damage and Neuroplasticity
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Causes of Brain Damage Brain tumors Cerebrovascular disorders Closed-head injuries Infections of the brain Neurotoxins Genetic factors All the above can trigger apoptosis (programmed cell death)
Background image of page 2
Brain Tumors A tumor (neoplasm) is a mass of cells that grows independently of the rest of the body – a cancer ~20% of brain tumors are meningiomas – encased in meninges Encapsulated, growing within their own membranes Usually benign, surgically removable
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Brain Tumors (continued) Most brain tumors are infiltrating Grow diffusely through surrounding tissue Malignant, difficult to remove or destroy About 10% of brain tumors are metastatic – they originate elsewhere, usually the lungs
Background image of page 4
Figure 10.2
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Figure 10.3
Background image of page 6
Cerebrovascular Disorders Stroke – a sudden-onset cerebrovascular event that causes brain damage Cerebral hemorrhage – bleeding in the brain Cerebral ischemia – disruption of blood supply Third leading cause of death in the U . S . and most common cause of adult disability
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Cerebrovascular Disorders (continued) Cerebral hemorrhage – blood vessel ruptures Aneurysm – a weakened point in a blood vessel that makes a stroke more likely; may be congenital (present at birth) or due to poison or infection Cerebral ischemia – disruption of blood supply Thrombosis – a plug forms in the brain Embolism – a plug forms elsewhere and moves to the brain Arteriosclerosis – wall of blood vessels thicken, usually due to fat deposits
Background image of page 8
Figure 10.4
Background image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Damage Due to Cerebral Ischemia Does not develop immediately Most damage is a consequence of excess neurotransmitter release – especially glutamate Blood-deprived neurons become overactive and release glutamate Glutamate overactivates its receptors, especially NMDA receptors leading to an influx of Na + and Ca 2+
Background image of page 10
Damage Due to Cerebral Ischemia (continued) lnflux of Na + and Ca 2+ triggers the release of still more glutamate a sequence of internal reactions that ultimately kill the neuron Ischemia-induced brain damage takes time does not occur equally in all parts of the brain mechanisms of damage vary with the brain structure affected
Background image of page 11

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Stroke- induced release of glutamate Cerebral Ischemia
Background image of page 12
Closed-Head Injuries Brain injuries due to blows that do not penetrate the skull – the brain collides with the skull Contrecoup injuries – contusions are often on the side of the brain opposite to the blow Contusions – closed-head injuries that involve damage to the cerebral circulatory system; hematoma (bruise) forms Concussions – when there is disturbance of consciousness following a blow to the head and no evidence of structural damage
Background image of page 13

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Figure 10.6
Background image of page 14
Concussions While there is no apparent brain damage with a single concussion, multiple concussions may result in a dementia referred to as “punch-drunk syndrome”
Background image of page 15

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 16
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 06/10/2008 for the course PSYCH 220 taught by Professor Shervin during the Spring '08 term at Western Washington.

Page1 / 62

Pinel7Ch10.FINAL - Chapter 10 Brain Damage and...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 16. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online