Final notecard - Residence time amt of reservoir/total...

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Residence time: amt of reservoir/total sources or sinks (fluxes in or out). Necessary for life: heavier elemnts(nuclear fusion), source of ene, presence of liq H2o(habitable zone), & suitabl env conditions. Force due to gravity: G(m1m2/R^2). R-distance b/w body 1&2.Energy: mass(sphere)^2. Electromagnetic energy from star-wavelength (long-lived and stable); chemical energy(hydrothermal vent). DrakeEqu:N=(R*)*Fp*NeFlFiFcL. SunParadox- luminosity(energy-power output)(3.865*10^26watts) of sun inc by 30%. Gives out ene in form of electromagnetic ene(high(short) low(long-radiowaves) wavelength[]). Emits radiation(elecmag ene)- everything temp>0K (as molecule stop vibratin).Stefan-BoltzamLaw:I(amt of raditon)=T^4(total eng=constant*T^4). Wien’sLaw:max=2989/T max emission. Big area-T-radiation-wavelength. Hotter blackbody-more ene.5factorEarth’s ene bal&surface temp: Sun’s luminosity:LT-;ST-sunspot, Distance from Sun(combine luminoosity&dis)-solarcConstant/ SolarFluxDensity=lumosity/area of sphere, Earth’s atmosp&albedo(radiation reflected)-withice&cloudT, Earth’s temp- blackbody radiation&feedbacks, & Greenhouse Effect-keep earth warm; visible light(shortwaveL); earthemits rad(longwaveL infrared rad). Solar ene absob=Terrestrial ene emitted. Terrestrial planet undergo differentiation(melting&sep into layers). Alfred Wegner-continental drift- not able to prove realistic mechanism(How).Plate Tectonic-paleomagetism(magnetic field-Curie pt (recorded by magnetic minerals[orientation-pt towards pole&inclination-angle] in rocks) from past-caused by convection in the liq outer core). Apparent polar wander(continent are wandin not pole)-reconst of magnetic poles from volcanic rocks. Harry Hess seafloor spreading: mid ocean ridges(2 plates are moving apart & new ocean crust is constantly formed) rising magma, new-crust(records magnetic flied) moves away from ridges gathering sediment, at trench sear floor dives back into the mantle; Pal Reversals(using radioactive decay of elements in the rock): Confirmation 1-Magnetic stripes on seafloor. Rate of spreading=km/Myr. Confirmation 2-Benioff Zones- deepest earthquakes [subduction(crust..back into mantle]. What drives plate tectonis?heat transfer: Conduction- movement of energy through solid body;the material itself doesn’t move. Convention(imp for driving tectonics-mantle plastic it flows)-movement of ene through a fluid body;material moves carry the heat; hot less dense material rises upward through fluid&is replaced by cooler, more dense material(mantle&litho). Radiation- movmt of ene b/w 2 pts that does not require any material at all(travel though space). Plate Boundaries(define where most earthquake&Volcanoes occur)- Divergent, Convergent& Transform-Continental crust[overtime –volcanic activity or stay the same](thicker, less dense material-granite, cannot subduct into mantle, generally older and accerete overtime),vs Oceanic(generally younger, gets continuously created&destroyed). Type of boundary, crust, landscape feature, volcanoes, earthquake. 1)Trasform-cont-features offset e.g. river, no vol, shallow eartgq

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