Anthro Vocab:1.Genetic Drift: variation that’s random in gene frequency due to sampling variation. 2 KINDS: BOTTLENECK AND FOUNDER EFFECT. change in the gene frequency population attributable to chance alone. In small populations, genetic drift may cause random changes in gene frequencies. The rate of genetic drift depends on population size, genetic drift causes differentiation. 2.alleles:variations of genes with the same effect on organisms. One of two or more alternate forms of a gene3.dominant/recessive: / the term for an allele that has no effect on an organisms phenotype in the heterozygous condition. 4.Recombination: the process that can happen via sexual reproduction during which traits can be reshuffled in novel ways in an offspring. Crossing over during meiosis can lead to recombination. 5.Phylogeny: an evolutionary family tree based on shared ancestry. The evolutionary relationships among a group of species. Phylogenies are the basis for the identification and classification of organisms and they explain why a species evolves certain adaptations. They help deduce the function of features by comparing the traits of different species. 6.Mutation: the evolutionary mechanism that introduces wholly new alleles, and therefore variation, into a population. 7.founder effect: Type of genetic drift, subset breaks off of population and variation decreases. Imbreading usually occurs and it takes a long time for variation to occur. (i.e. Omish) If there are 15 people and half of them are different and 4 leave; that group of 4 now have less variation because there are less people. The chances are they will be alike.