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09 False Childhood Memories

09 False Childhood Memories - Memory Errors Misinformation...

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Memory Errors Misinformation Effect Post-Event misleading information leads to memory errors False Childhood Memories Can people create false memories?
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Eyewitness Memory Research Event Accurate Misleading Post-Event Information Memory Test Loftus, Miller, & Burns (1978) Car Accident Stopped at corner Turns corner Hit pedestrian What SIGN? Yield Sign Yield Sign Stop Sign Yield Or Stop 75% Accurate 40% Accurate Misinformation Effect
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Theories of the Misinformation Effect Schema Theory (Loftus) New information is added to memory Replaces the original information Original is lost Source Memory Explanation Both pieces of information are stored Lose the source of the information Mistakenly report misinformation on test
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False Childhood Memories Can people create false childhood memories? Generalize from eyewitness memory studies See stop sign Misinformation is yield sign Later mistakenly claim saw yield sign False memories Have a childhood Suggestions of abuse events (in therapy, on news) Later mistakenly claim that the false events occurred
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Problems Generalizing from Eyewitness Studies Changing aspects of events vs. creating entire events Self uninvolved vs. self involved Little or no emotion vs. trauma Perhaps we should not generalize
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False Memory Research Phase 1 – Parent Survey Phase 2 – Student Interview (Hyman, Husband, & Billings, 1995)
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False Memory Research Phase 1 – Parent Survey Mailed questionnaire to parents of intro psychology students Asked about events that happened between the ages of 2 and 10 Provided 10 event categories
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False Memory Research Phase 1 – Parent Survey Phase 2 – Student Interview Asked students about 3-5 true events Asked about 1 false event 3 rd event position Wedding, sprinklers, car Varied age (2, 6, 10) 3 interviews separated by 1 day
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