midterm review - 1 Chapter 1 1 Sociology is the scientific...

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1. Chapter 1 1. Sociology is the scientific study of social behavior and human groups. In this chapter, we examine the nature of sociological theory, the founders of the discipline, theoretical perspectives in contemporary sociology, practical applications for sociological theory and research, and ways to exercise the “sociological imagination.” 2. The sociological imagination is an awareness of the relationship between an individual and the wider society. It is based on the ability to view our own society as an outside might, rather than from the perspective of our limited experiences and cultural biases. 3. In contrast to other social sciences , sociology emphasizes the influence that groups can have on people's behavior and attitudes and the ways in which people shape society. . 4. Knowledge that relies on “common sense” is not always reliable. Sociologists must test and analyze each piece of information they use. 5. Sociologists employ theories to examine relationships between observations or data that may seem completely unrelated. 6. Nineteenth-century thinkers who contributed sociological insights included I. Auguste Comte - a French philosopher II. Harriet Martineau - English Sociologists III. Herbert Spencer – English Scholar 7. Other important figures in the development of sociology were I. Emile Durkheim – Pioneered work on suicide II. Max Weber – Taught the need for “insight” in intellectual work III. Karl Marx – Emphasized the importance of the economy and social conflict 8. In the 20 th century, the discipline of sociology was indebted to the U.S. Sociologists Charles Horton Cooley and Robert Merton. 9. Macrosociology concentrates on large-scale phenomena or entire civilizations, whereas microsociology stresses the study of small groups. 10. The functionalist perspective emphasizes the way in which the parts of society are structured to maintain its stability 11. The conflict perspective assumes that social behavior is best understood in terms of conflict or tension between competing groups. 12. The interactionist perspective is concerned primarily with fundamental or everyday forms of interaction, including symbols and other types of nonverbal communcation. 13. Sociologists make use of all three perspectives, since each offers unique insights into the same issue. 14. Applied and clinical sociology apply the discipline of sociology to the solution of practical problems in human behavior and organizations. Basic sociology is sociological inquiry that seeks only a deeper knowledge of the fundamental aspects of social phenomena. 15. This textbook makes use of the sociological imagination by showing theory in practice and research in action; by thinking globally; by focusing on the significance of social inequality, by speaking across race, gender, and religious boundaries; and by highlighting social policy around the world. Social inequality
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This note was uploaded on 06/10/2008 for the course SOC 101 taught by Professor Taylor during the Spring '08 term at Ohio University- Athens.

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midterm review - 1 Chapter 1 1 Sociology is the scientific...

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