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BIOL 101 INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY W/LAB (SPRING 2008) (B20498- 200820) TOOLS BIOL 101 INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY W/LAB (SPRING 2008) (B20498- 200820) > Glossary The Glossary contains 961 terms. A B A C A D A E A F A G A H A I A J A K A L A M A N A O A P A Q A R A S A T A U A V A W A X A Y A Z A A A A acid A chemical compound that can give up a hydrogen ion. Compare base and buffer. acid rain Rainfall with a low pH. Acid rain is a consequence of the release of sulfur dioxide and other pollutants into the atmosphere, where they are converted to acids that then fall back to Earth in rain or snow. acrosome The front tip of a sperm, which contains enzymes that digest the outer covering of the unfertilized ovum. actin A protein found in the cytoskeleton, in muscle tissue, and in bacterial flagella. actin filament One of the two types of filaments that make up muscle, consisting of two molecules of the protein actin. Compare myosin filament. action potential An electrical signal generated by the flow of ions across the plasma membrane of a neuron. Action potentials are self-sustaining and can travel down a neuron in only one direction. activation energy The small input of energy required for a chemical reaction to proceed. active carrier protein A protein in the plasma membrane of a cell that, using energy from an energy storage molecule such as ATP, changes its shape to transfer a molecule across the plasma membrane. Compare passive carrier protein. active immunity The immunity of an organism to a pathogen that depends on the production of antibodies specific to that pathogen by the organism's own body. Compare passive immunity. active site The specific region on the surface of an enzyme where substrate molecules bind. active transport Movement of molecules that requires an input of energy. Compare passive transport. adaptation A characteristic of an organism that improves that organism's performance in its environment. adaptive evolution The process by which natural selection improves the match between organisms and their environment over time.
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adaptive radiation An evolutionary expansion in which a group of organisms takes on new ecological roles and forms new species and higher taxonomic groups. adenosine triphosphate See ATP. adrenal gland One of a pair of endocrine glands that sit atop the mammalian kidney and which release the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine. adrenaline See epinephrine. aerobic Of or referring to a metabolic process or organism that requires oxygen gas. Compare anaerobic. aerobic respiration A general term used to describe a series of oxidation reactions that use oxygen to produce ATP. allele One of several alternative versions of a gene. Each allele has a DNA sequence different from that of all other alleles of the same gene. allele frequency
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