Final Study Guide

Final Study Guide - Final Anth 200g Study Guide Chapter...

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Final Anth 200g Study Guide Chapter Outlines (15 to come by end of tonight) Class Study Guide Outline Chapter 6— Human Variation: Evolution, Adaptation, and Adaptability - human variation – anatomically and behavioral levels o phenotypic – men and women and sexual dimorphism body size o homo sapiens are polytypic species – one that is divided into local populations that differ by one or more phenotypic traits - population – describe groups or communities of animals that are identifiable within a species o subspecies is a group of populations that are based on one or more phenotypic traits o there can be no objective way to decide how much variation (genetic or anatomical) is enough to consider two groups of worthy or separate identification - Race in Anthropology – o Anthropometry – the measurement of different aspects of the body, such as stature or skin, and culminated in his large- scale study comparing head and body form in immigrants to the US - Population genetics – concerned with uncovering genetic variation within and between populations of organisms o Population genetics is concerned primarily wit microevolution, or evolutionary processes that occur within a species o Polymorphisms – two or more distinct phenotypes that exist within a population Population where blue and brown eyed people live - Phylogeny – an evolutionary tree indicating relatedness and divergence of taxonomic groups o Tree – clusters closely related populations together Branch – related populations, a lineage or clade Branching points – as high degree of statistical certainty as possible Longer branches show that more evolution has occurred and more time has elapsed since the separation of the two populations o Natural selection – negative selection probably is working to reduce frequencies of HLA alleles o Lactose intolerance – young mammals drink milk, then when they are more independent they never drink milk again As mammals get older their bodies shut down production of lactase Humans are unique to this – highly polymorphic trait - Balanced polymorphism – a stable polymorphism in a population in which natural selection prevents any of the alternative phenotypes from becoming fixed of being lost
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o An allele has an advantage in a population relative to other alleles until it reaches a certain frequency in the population o Sickle – cell – impairs the ability of red blood cells to deliver oxygen to the tissues of the body, it is an autosomal recessive disease Heterozygotes are carriers - adaptation and adaptability - an ability on the part of the individual to physiologically respond to changes in the environment, called biological plasticity o adaptability – individuals of different populations can display different phenotypes, and still have the same genotype o heat and cold – could be adapting, or genotypic - body size and shape – in climate, within a polytypic species, predictable relationships
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Final Study Guide - Final Anth 200g Study Guide Chapter...

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