Manhattan research paper

Manhattan research paper - History 123 Cockrell The...

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History 123 Cockrell The Manhattan Project: Research Paper The decision to drop the atomic bomb on Nagasaki and Hiroshima was one that would forever change the course of human events. When speaking of this event most focus solely on the dropping of the bombs; it is often forgot the immense planning which went into a project of such magnitude. The Manhattan Project, in its entirety, employed over 130,000 people and cost over $2 billion, the equivalent to $23 billion today (Kelly 187). With 10 locations for planning and research in New York and eight in Washington D.C., this was a carefully coordinated mission. Meticulous organization, unprecedented secrecy, and relentless scientific work culminated in the creation and finalization of the Manhattan Project. Previously referred to as The Manhattan Engineer District, the Manhattan Project began in 1941 under the Franklin Roosevelt presidency. After Roosevelt’s sudden death, Harry Truman presided over the White House. The project began in response to the discovery that the Germans had discovered nuclear fission in December of 1938 (Groueff 9). Prior to this time scientists such as Sir John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton, the first to split the atom, were investigating the possibility of nuclear fission as an alternative energy source. Leo Szilárd, a Hungarian scientist, was the first to discover that fission of uranium created at chain reaction which could be utilized to create weapons of mass destruction. On August 2 nd , 1939, Albert Einstein sent a letter to President Roosevelt stating “Certain aspects of the situation (Germany’s ban on export of uranium) which has arisen seem to call for watchfulness and, if necessary, quick action on the part of the Administration (Stoff 18).” Einstein’s letter to the president explained what would be
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necessary such a project to compete with the Germans. As scientists in the United States collaborated from various collegiate institutions research needed to be centralized. American physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer led the scientific research and development of the Manhattan Project. He was well liked among all of the scientists who worked on the lower level projects. When he entered many plants the workers felt very engaged as his charisma was enjoyed by all (Kelly 209). The original location of the project was in the 18 th floor of a building in Manhattan with other sites located throughout the city. As the project expanded, three other centers were created in Los Alamos, New Mexico, Oakridge, Tennessee, and Hanford, Washington. Originally the entire project was overseen by Vannevar Bush, the head of the Office of Scientific Research and Development. Dr. James B Conant was the director of the National Defense Research Committee. Bush and Conant served as the two closest people to Roosevelt throughout project. Two years after Vannevar had control of The Manhattan project it was turned over to the military in 1943, a move which Vannevar was content with because army officials
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Manhattan research paper - History 123 Cockrell The...

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