Comm 203 Exam 1 Review Sheet - Comm 203 Exam 1 Review...

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Comm 203 Exam 1 Review Defining Mass Communication & Media Effects Mass Communication: process consisting of 6 stages (DeFleur & Dennis 1994) 1. Communicators decide to create a message o Specialists In the media? o Gather, Edit, and/or design a message 2. Messages are encoded/formulated o Shaped and re-shaped based on the target audience 3. Message Transmission (rapidly/continuously) 4. Medium à Device used to communicate a message by moving physical information over distance or preserving it through time. 5. Audience (large/diverse) 6. Messages are decoded o Variationà select vs. respond to content 7. Message influences audience o Interpreted in some way (trivial to profound) Intended Effects: (McGuire 1985) o Intended àDeliberate attempts on the part of the communicator to influence the recipient in some way 1. Impact of commercial advertisements o Goal = persuasion 2. Impact political campaigns (voting) 3. Impact of public service announcement o Pro-social impact of the media 4. Impact of campaigns to change life styles o Identify a social problem o Change attitude/behavior o Across channels (media & intrapersonal) o Fear appealsà scare to change o Doesn’t always work because: o It is a turn off, o Not everyone is scared (desensitizing) o Not taken seriously (mocked) o Could promote opposite feeling 5. Impact of campaigns on ideology and lifestyle o Mostly seen in totalitarian governmentsà use media and intrapersonal channels to control beliefs (Hitler) Unintended Effects: (McGuire 1985) four major types o Unintended à Designed for purposes other than to exert social influence, usually to entertain and may result in negative outcome 1. Impact of media violence (TV) 1
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Leads to real violence o Concern leads to aggression o When TV was introduced in 1944 and content picked up media violence had a large impact. o Aggressive overtone in the 60s (sexual revolution, civil rights movement, JFK & MLK Jr. assassinations) o Correlation does not mean causation! 2. Impact of sexually explicit content o Influence men’s and women’s attitudes and beliefs about rape, STDs, date rape etc. o BIG CONCERN: Does mass media play causal role? o Put messages in popular shows (EX: Friends episode about condoms not always being effective.) 3. Under representationà impact of socially invisibility o Often groups are negatively portrayed (EX: native Americans gambling) o Social and ethnic minorities are not defused across the spectrum o You do not see a lot of gays, obesity, interracial relationships, eastern religion, and international tragedies on TV o Who makes these decisions?? o Heavy viewers get a skewed view of the world (homogenous view) 4. Impact of misrepresentation o BIG CONCERN: individuals may develop negative attitudes toward stereotype groups (EX: disabled are made a spectacle) Types of Effects: 1. Behavioralà change the way you look because of what you saw in media (emulate what you see) o EX: Jennifer Aniston (popular haircut), Madonna, Magic Johnson, 90210 2. Attitudinalà favorable or unfavorable evaluations of people, places or things o EX: violence 3.
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