Chapter 16 Lecture Notes

Chapter 16 Lecture Notes - Chapter 16 Lecture Notes The...

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Chapter 16 Lecture Notes The Transition Metals
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Unlike main group metals, the transition metals exhibit diverse behaviors and memorization plays a key role in mastering their chemistry.
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d 5 Size contracts significantly for the metallic state, with an anomaly at s 2 d 5 for the first row transition metals (TMs). The first row elements, with the exception of Sc, are among the most abundant transition metals. Second and third row metals are generally less abundant.
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Metallic Bonding Maximizes with the half filled band at Cr. TMs are not as electropositive as the alkali metals, Al, and the alkaline earths, so the metallic state is not nearly as reducing. The high melting point and relatively high abundance of the first row TMs leads to their use as important structural metals (Ti and Fe) and their use in alloys (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, and Cu). Copper is important as the most conducting of all metals, except gold. Aluminum is alloyed (2-8%) with Cu for corrosion resistance and Zn and Mn for strength.
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The Lanthanide Contraction Results in the Second and Third Row Transition Metals Having Similar Size and Chemistry Compared to the First Row. Thus, the chemistry of Ru and Os is similar and quite different from Fe. Zr and Hf chemistry is very similar and significantly different from Ti.
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Groups 9-12 are all fairly inert metals, especially for the second and third rows. Because of the filled d shell they behave somewhat like inert alkali metals and alkaline earths (especially in second and third row). Thus Ag and Au are difficult to oxidize to +1 ions and Cd and Hg are not easily oxidized to +2 ions. Cd 2+ is toxic, because it can substitute for Ca 2+ in bones and cause “brittle bone disease.”
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In their metallic state the transition metals exhibit a range of behavior from relatively unreactive metals, such as, nickel, silver, and copper, to very unreactive gold, rhodium, iridium, and platinum. Others are fairly reactive reducing metals, such as zinc and iron. Their melting points and physical properties range from liquid (mercury), soft malleable metals (gold, zinc, silver, copper), to high melting hard metals such as molybdenum, tantalum, and tungsten. Many properties correlate with the number of d electrons and transition metals exist in a
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This note was uploaded on 06/12/2008 for the course CHEM 6C taught by Professor Hoeger during the Spring '08 term at UCSD.

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Chapter 16 Lecture Notes - Chapter 16 Lecture Notes The...

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