Terms for Final - Terms for Final Fasci di Combattimento...

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Terms for Final Fasci di Combattimento – original band of fascist members, predecessor to the Italian fascism under Benito Mussolini; the groups sprang up in Italy in the first months of World War I; essentially a group of anti-socialism thugs that made progress through intimidation; officially form the National Fascist Party (PNF) in Italy in 1921; one of the original instances of fascism Birth of Fascism (Fascism) – seen in World War I and post-WWI Europe, first in Italy (under Mussolini, with the Fasci di combattimento ) and a few years later in Germany with Hitler; both fascist regimes rise to power by crushing their opponents; fascism is an anti- socialist/anti-communist bureaucracy; in Italy, party is known as the National Fascist Party (PNF) and in Germany is known as the National Socialist Party (a.k.a. Nazism) Benito Mussolini – leader of Fascist Italy, party officially formed in 1921, becomes Prime Minister in 1922, and is entitled il duce in 1925; founder of Italian fascism, leader of Italy during World War II, had Italy as one of the Axis Powers; ousted from power by Italians in 1943, but placed as leader of Italian Social Republic backed by Nazis until his death in 1945; ideology principled in restoration of Italy’s long lost supremacy (e.g., ancient Rome); it should be noted that Mussolini was not able to achieve industrialization with Italy to the same extent that Hitler accomplished with Germany National Socialist Party – the German fascist party, precursor to the German Nazi Party; formed in 1918 as the German Worker’s Party (DAP), reorganized by Adolf Hitler in 1924 upon his release from jail and renamed the Nazi Party; led by Adolf Hitler until the defeat of Germany in 1945; Hitler’s date of rising to power is officially recognized as 1933; the party supported a totalitarian regime (under Hitler); generally recognized as responsible for the outbreak of World War II in Europe and the genocide of Jews, the Holocaust; ideology stressed a racial purity of the German people (Aryans); before becoming the Nazi Party, was the socialist representation in the parliament of the German Weimar Republic; first elected officials in 1928, with growing popularity culminating with establishment of Third Reich Adolph Hitler – leader of German Nazi Party and Chancellor of Germany from 1933 until death in 1945; Austrian by birth; political ideology consists of a stance against the Versailles Treaty of 1918, citing an unfair war guilt placed on Germany; rise to power culminated in becoming Fuhrer in 1934; gained power in wake of economic troubles following demands placed on Germany in aforementioned Versailles Treaty; writer of Mein Kampf which states political and ideological Jews; anti-Semitic, responsible for implementation of “Final Solution” and massive European genocide, including the Holocaust John Maynard Keynes – British economist who accurately predicted the negative effects on Germany of the Versailles Treaty; stated that the war reparations were too large and would push
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This note was uploaded on 06/12/2008 for the course IAS 45 taught by Professor Karras during the Spring '07 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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Terms for Final - Terms for Final Fasci di Combattimento...

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