MME Lec3 - Ottoman Reforms the Land Code and the Peasants...

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Ottoman Reforms, the Land Code, and the Peasants: Impact of the Tanzimat Lecture 3 Ottoman Reforms, the Land Code, and the Peasants: Impact of the Tanzimat Ottomans knew they had to face an new world in which old tax farming was not creating enough revenue for the state; especially for a modern civil service and infrastructure. Decentralized system was not providing enough revenue for all of this (shown in last lecture). Chief concern is new fiscal policy and then legal reform (Tanzimat). End of Tax Farming One of the central aims of Tanzimat was to increase revenue for state by eliminating ‘parasitic system of tax farming’ – the system by which the Imperial state exacted the tithe (USHR) from the land revenue Rationale: Tax farming, based on the periodic subcontracting of rural tax allotments made sense since it allowed the state to collect taxes without a considerable investment in a class of ax collectors. No bureaucracy Replaces an earlier system of military feudalism Objective of the Land Code The Land Code of 1858, an essential feature of the Tanzimat aimed at elimination of both the Illitzam system of tax farming because it denied the state substantial revenue And the elimination of the Communal system of property by introducing privatization of land Communal System of Land Ownership Communal Land Ownership, known in Anatolia and Syria as Musha, allowed peasantry to crop the land in a communal fashion The village as a whole owned the land community The Cultivating unit was the family Each extended family unit was given land equal to the number of adult males in the household Women lived with husbands so given to men Each 12 years the changing number of adult males assessed the communal land given The Musha System and Tax Farming were Obstacles to land capitalization The rationale of the communal system of land possession was a defensive strategy
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This note was uploaded on 06/12/2008 for the course HISTORY 109C taught by Professor Tamari during the Spring '08 term at Berkeley.

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MME Lec3 - Ottoman Reforms the Land Code and the Peasants...

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