MME Lec2 - • Nizamiyyeh secular schools in provincial...

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Land and Labor: the View from the Center Pt. 1 Lecture 2 The Tanzimat of 1839: Ushering Ottoman and Middle Eastern Modernity Hatti Serif Gulham Tanzimat Reforms were signed by Sultan Abdulmecid ushering a period of Organizational Reforms Tanzimat were aimed at reorganizing administrative, fiscal, and military reforms to allow Ottoman Empire to European encirclement They were also aimed at ending era of capitulations by which immense privileges were given to European consular officials and trading posts Main Provisions of Hatti Serif Gulham Equality of Ottoman citizens regardless of religious or ethnic affiliation 1844 – Organization of the army along modern European lines and fixing duration of military service Adoption of the French Civil and Criminal Code (Code Napoleon) 1876 – Establishment of the First Ottoman elected Parliament with limited suffrage (Mab’outhan) 1856 – Conscription of non-Muslims a what were the consequences? (Badal payments) Establishment of the first system of public education (Nizamiyyeh schools)
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Unformatted text preview: • Nizamiyyeh secular schools in provincial capitals • Military colleges in Baghdad, Istanvul, Aleppo, and Izmir Ending of Tax Farming • Tax farming as a system of decentralized collection of revenue • First based on Timir Sipahi • End of 18 th century based on Iltizam • Periodic auctioning of taxes to feudal lords • Multazim would collect the tithe for the High Porte (Istanbul Government) and keep a third of the revenue (tithe – biblical tax a typically 10% tax would go to ruler) • System allows for least central control and bureaucracy but very costly in terms of wastage Fiscal Measure of Tanzimat • End to poll tax (capitations) 1856 imposed on non-Muslims • Beginning to end of capitulations—not successful until 1915 • Land Code of 1858 • Provisions • Cadastral Survey • Establishment of the Tapu Land Registry End of Communal Land ownership and provisions to establish private ownership in land...
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MME Lec2 - • Nizamiyyeh secular schools in provincial...

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