Biology - Excretion Osmoregulation Osmosis Diffusion of water of a semi primal memory Osmolarity total solute concentration expressed as molarity

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Excretion Osmoregulation Osmosis- Diffusion of water of a semi primal memory Osmolarity- total solute concentration expressed as molarity; aka osmotic pressure 1. When 2 solutes differ in osmolarity they are either hyperosmotic or hypoosmotic. Excretory Process- fig 44.9 -filtration -reabsorption -secretion-   a process by which substances are produced and discharged from a cell, gland, or organ for a particular function in the organism or for excretion. -excretion Mammalian excretion - Pair of kidneys supplied w/ blood by the renal artery and drained by renal vein - Kidney has 2 regions o Renal Cortex o Renal Medulla - Nephron- functional unit of kidney 1. Glomerulus- ball of capillaries a cluster of nerve endings, spores, or small blood vessels, in particular a cluster of capillaries around the end of a kidney tubule, where waste products are filtered from the blood. 2. Bowman’s Capsule a capsule-shaped membranous structure surrounding the glomerulus of each nephron in the kidneys of mammals that extracts wastes, excess salts, and water from the blood. 3. Proximal Tube Fuctions: reabsoption of salt and water 4. Loop of Henle the part of a kidney tubule that forms a long loop in the medulla of the kidney, from which water and salts are resorbed into the blood. 5. Dustal tube 6. Collecting duct Apbioargo.blogspot.com
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Glands The hypothalamus Located in the center of the brain Works with the pituitary gland Secreting certain chemicals to the frontal lube Its main function is to maintain homeostasis Controls every gland in the body Hypothalamic Hamartoma- rare benign tumor Irregularly known as hypothalamic dysfunction Controls breathing and blinking Stimulates adrenal glands Links the nervous system to the endocrine system Have regularatory areas for the thirst hunger and temp Glucagons Secreted by the pancreas. .blood levels drop to low It’s a protein It’s a linear polypeptide with 29 amino acids Opposite effect of insulin, increasing glucose to the blood Released by alpha cells Mostly effects the liver Stored as glycogen Glucagons simulates the breakdown of glycogen releasing glucose Very rare- cancer from alpha cells Tumors of rashes and skin problems Hyperglycemic Secreted by high glucose levels in the blood Estrogen Group of steroid compounds Stimulate unine lining growth Primary female sex hormone Prepare the uterus to receive a fertilized egg Affects the uterus Lead to blood clotting if estrogen is inserted into women Bone loss Inhibits the body’s ability to activate vitamin D found in food Menopausal- decline in collagen and thickness of the skin Regulated by gonadotrophins by the anterior pituitary gland FSH and LH secretion in turn is controlled by releasing hormone from the hypothalamus
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Androgens Sex hormones from males Chemical class steroids Main Androgen= testosterone Adrenal Cortex In the adrenal glands Interstitial cells of leydig Gender development Puberty Anabolic effect Protein breakdown for muscle and bone growth
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This note was uploaded on 06/12/2008 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Daughtry during the Fall '08 term at E. Illinois.

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Biology - Excretion Osmoregulation Osmosis Diffusion of water of a semi primal memory Osmolarity total solute concentration expressed as molarity

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