artificial neural nw - Artificial Neural Networks Introduction Dr K Ganesan Director TIFAC-CORE in Automotive Infotronics VIT University Vellore 632 014

artificial neural nw - Artificial Neural Networks...

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Artificial Neural Networks - Introduction Dr. K. Ganesan Director – TIFAC-CORE in Automotive Infotronics VIT University, Vellore – 632 014 [email protected]
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Introduction Neural networks are information processing systems, which are constructed and implemented to model the human brain . Artificial neural networks perform various tasks such as pattern-matching and classification, optimization function, approximation, vector quantization and data clustering. These tasks are difficult for traditional computers, which are faster in algorithmic computational tasks and precise arithmetic operations.
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Artificial Neural Network ANNs possess large number of highly interconnected processing elements called nodes or units or neurons , which usually operate in parallel and are configured in specific architectures. Each neuron is connected with the other by a connection link . Each connection link is associated with weights which contain information about the input signal . ANNs collective behavior is characterized by their ability to learn, recall and generalize training patterns. Each neuron has an internal state of its own. The internal state is called the activation or activity level of neuron, which is the function of the inputs the neurons receives. Activation of a neuron is transmitted to other neurons . A neuron can send only one signal at a time , which can be transmitted to several other neurons.
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Biological Neural Network The human brain consists of about 10^11 neurons. The structure of neuron is as shown below:
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The biological neurons has 3 important parts: Soma or cell body – where cell nucleus is located (cpu). Dendrites – where the nerve is connected to the cell body (inputs). Axon – carries the impulses of the neuron (cables). Dendrites are tree like networks made of nerve fiber connected to the cell body. An axon is a single, long connection extending from the cell body and carrying signals from the neuron. The end of the axon splits into fine strands . Each strand terminates into a small bulb-like organ called synapse. Through synapse the neuron introduces its signals to other nearby neurons (gateways). There are about 10^4 synapses per neuron in the human brain.
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Refractory period Electric impulses are passed between the synapse and the dendrites. Here signal transmission involves a chemical process in which specific transmitter substances are released from the sending side of the junction. This results in increase or decrease in the electric potential inside the body of the receiving cell. If the electric potential reaches a threshold then the receiving cell fires and a pulse or action potential of fixed strength and duration is sent out through the axon to the synaptic junctions of the other cells.
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  • Winter '16
  • ganeshan
  • Artificial neural network, neural network, Yin

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