Notes on Individual Questions
These notes must be read in conjunction with the current mark bands.
Causes, practices and effects of war
Assess the importance of nationalism and of selfish ambition as causes of
Reference must be made to at least
Candidates usually wish to write about the First and Second World Wars in this topic, therefore
many will probably discuss nationalism, especially in relation to Germany, and the Balkans and
Austria for the First World War, and Hitler with perhaps national feeling in Germany for the
Second World War.
With a suitable explanation nationalism could be extended to include
various wars of decolonisation such as Algeria, or Civil Wars such as Vietnam.
ambition could also be ascribed to various dictators or would be dictators for causing or
sustaining wars, in all regions.
Some examples might be Mussolini, Lon Nol, Pol Pot, Stalin.
Those who base their answers solely on nationalism and selfish ambition as causes of the two
but do so in an analytical way, could score
[11 to 13 marks]
[14 to 16 marks]
Inadequate answers or those which describe the causes of wars in a generalised way would
[8 to 10 marks]
To reach the higher bands candidates might either produce an
analysis which ranges over several wars world-wide, or concentrate on the importance of
nationalism and selfish ambition, and discuss other causes briefly.
treaties and evaluate their success in resolving the
conflicts which necessitated the treaties.
Candidates should name the treaties, note their main clauses and judge their fairness, suitability,
shortcomings and of course their success in restoring and maintaining peace.
No doubt the
Treaty of Versailles, 28 June 1919 will be the main choice and allow up to
Allow St German and Neuilly as separate treaties.
Other treaties which might be used
are Brest-Litovsk (1918), Bucharest (1923), Sevres (1922), Lausanne (1923).
which end wars such as Paris Peace Accords (1973) or at least officially stop fighting
Parmunjom Armistice (1953).
As the question specifically states &ending armed conflict±,
treaties of alliance which did not end wars are not relevant.
Answers which only deal with one
treaty or do not either examine or evaluate success, should be marked out of
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