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History HS P2 - INTERNATIONAL BACCALAURAT BACHILLERATO...

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MARKSCHEME May 2000 HISTORY Higher Level and Standard Level Paper 2 M00/310-315/HS(2)M INTERNATIONAL BACCALAUREATE BACCALAUR°AT INTERNATIONAL BACHILLERATO INTERNACIONAL 19 pages
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Notes on Individual Questions These notes must be read in conjunction with the current mark bands. Topic 1: Causes, practices and effects of war 1. Assess the importance of nationalism and of selfish ambition as causes of twentieth century wars. Reference must be made to at least two wars. Candidates usually wish to write about the First and Second World Wars in this topic, therefore many will probably discuss nationalism, especially in relation to Germany, and the Balkans and Austria for the First World War, and Hitler with perhaps national feeling in Germany for the Second World War. With a suitable explanation nationalism could be extended to include various wars of decolonisation such as Algeria, or Civil Wars such as Vietnam. Selfish ambition could also be ascribed to various dictators or would be dictators for causing or sustaining wars, in all regions. Some examples might be Mussolini, Lon Nol, Pol Pot, Stalin. Those who base their answers solely on nationalism and selfish ambition as causes of the two World Wars , but do so in an analytical way, could score [11 to 13 marks] or [14 to 16 marks] . Inadequate answers or those which describe the causes of wars in a generalised way would score [8 to 10 marks] or lower. To reach the higher bands candidates might either produce an analysis which ranges over several wars world-wide, or concentrate on the importance of nationalism and selfish ambition, and discuss other causes briefly. 2. Examine critically two treaties and evaluate their success in resolving the armed conflicts which necessitated the treaties. Candidates should name the treaties, note their main clauses and judge their fairness, suitability, shortcomings and of course their success in restoring and maintaining peace. No doubt the Treaty of Versailles, 28 June 1919 will be the main choice and allow up to [12 marks] for this treaty. Allow St German and Neuilly as separate treaties. Other treaties which might be used are Brest-Litovsk (1918), Bucharest (1923), Sevres (1922), Lausanne (1923). Allow agreements which end wars such as Paris Peace Accords (1973) or at least officially stop fighting Parmunjom Armistice (1953). As the question specifically states ±ending armed conflict², treaties of alliance which did not end wars are not relevant. Answers which only deal with one treaty or do not either examine or evaluate success, should be marked out of [12 marks] . M00/310-315/HS(2)M - 8 -
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3. Compare and contrast the effects for the country concerned of two of the following: the Chinese Civil War; the Nigerian Civil War; the Spanish Civil War. The Chinese Civil War could either be counted as 1931 to 1949, or only as its final session, 1945 to 1949. The Nigerian Civil War was from 1966 to 1970 and the Spanish Civil War 1936 to 1939. For comparison and contrasts candidates should consider the obvious bitterness, destruction, loss of life, wider political implications, etc . of the actual wars chosen,
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