Psychology SL P2 - INTERNATIONAL BACCALAURAT BACHILLERATO...

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MARKSCHEME May 2000 PSYCHOLOGY Standard Level Paper 2 M00/350/S(2)M BACCALAUREATE BACCALAUR&AT INTERNATIONAL BACHILLERATO INTERNACIONAL 24 pages
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Biological bases of behaviour [13 marks] [12 marks] 1. (a) Describe the effects of two different drugs on the nervous system. Candidates may select their choice of drugs from medicinal or recreational drugs, including nicotine or alcohol. In the first part of this question candidates must focus on the nervous system and it should not be surprising if candidates are well aware of the effects of amphetamines, cocaine, MDMA (Ecstasy), heroin or LSD. Most of these mentioned act on the nervous system in a similar way to excitatory transmitter substances and in some cases as a stimulant to produce energy by increasing the firing rate of nor-adrenalin (nor-epinephrine) or to produce a feeling of euphoria by increasing the firing rate of producing neurons. (b) Discuss how these drugs may affect the behaviour of people. Effects of drugs on behaviour will be better known by many candidates. Drugs used by the medical profession could also be used as examples. For example, valium has a calming effect on people who feel anxious, whereas amounts of amphetamines increase arousal and alertness; large amounts of this drug can lead to psychosis produces hallucinations. Long term effects are fatigue and depression. Examiners should be aware that only two drugs are required & the same two drugs should be considered for parts (a) and (b). No marks should be awarded for consideration of other drugs. & 7 & M00/350/S(2)M
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[13 marks] [12 marks] 2. Describe and evaluate (a) one invasive technique used to investigate cortical functioning . (b) one non-invasive technique used to investigate cortical functioning. Cortical functioning can apply to exterior structures of the brain, cross-sectional structures and the cerebral hemispheres. (a) Invasive techniques can include the early work of Penfield or Delgado, Hubel and Wiesel, Lashley, and Sperry&s split brain studies or electro convulsive treatment. Candidates are invited to describe just one of these techniques; but they may of course, use other techniques to criticise or evaluate the one under discussion. For example, Sperry&s patients had irreversible surgery performed on them and ethical considerations are involved. Non-invasive techniques do not usually involve such dramatic intervention. (b) Non-invasive techniques have increased in popularity. Strictly speaking the only non-invasive techniques are confined to the external recording of brain activity by electroencephalograms (EEGs), and electro-myograms (EMGs) to measure muscle movement and tension). These are useful but sometimes rather crude measures since they record the interaction of millions of neurons. Scanning techniques ± CATS, MRI, PET and SPET scans are more accurate but they do involve x-rays, magnetic rotation or mild radioactivity. Each of these may be counted as either invasive or non-invasive techniques.
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This note was uploaded on 06/11/2008 for the course IB 2002 taught by Professor Ibprofessors during the Fall '00 term at InterAmerican Barranquitas.

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Psychology SL P2 - INTERNATIONAL BACCALAURAT BACHILLERATO...

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