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Unformatted text preview: HISTORY HIGHER AND STANDARD LEVEL PAPER 1 Wednesday 16 May 2001 (afternoon) 1 hour M01/310&315/HS(1) INTERNATIONAL BACCALAUREATE BACCALAURAT INTERNATIONAL BACHILLERATO INTERNACIONAL 221-001 10 pages INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES ! Do not open this examination paper until instructed to do so. ! Answer: either all questions in Section A; or all questions in Section B; or all questions in Section C. Texts in this examination paper have been edited: word additions or explanations are shown in square brackets [ ]; substantive deletions of text are indicated by ellipses in square brackets [&]; minor changes are not indicated. Candidates should answer the questions in order. SECTION A Prescribed Subject 1 The Russian Revolutions and the New Soviet State 1917&1929 These documents relate to the period between the two 1917 revolutions. DOCUMENT A An extract from Lenins April Theses , 4 April 1917. In our attitude towards the war not the slightest concession must be made to &Revolutionary Defensism for even under the new government the war on Russias part unquestionably remains an imperialist war owing to the capitalist nature of that government. We must organise propaganda of this view among the whole army on active service. The specific feature of the present situation in Russia is that it represents a transition from the first stage of revolution which led to the assumption of power by the bourgeoisie to the second stage, which must place power in the hands of the proletariat and the poorer peasantry. No support must by given to the Provisional Government; the utter falsity of its promises must be exposed. It must be explained to the masses that the Soviet of Workers Deputies is the only possible form of revolutionary government, and therefore our task is, as long as this government is influenced by the bourgeoisie, to explain the error of its ways. DOCUMENT B A resolution passed by the All Russian Conference of Soviets, 5 April 1917. In agreement with the Petrograd Soviet of Workers and Soldiers Deputies, the Provisional Government has published a programme of governmental works. The All Russian Conference of Soviets recognises that this programme includes the basic demands of Russian democracy. The Conference also recognises the necessity of gradually gaining political control and influence over the Provisional Government and its local organs [organisations] so as to persuade it to conduct the most energetic struggle against counter-revolutionary forces, and to make preparations for universal peace. The Conference appeals to democracy to support the Provisional Government without assuming responsibility for all the work of the government, as long as the government steadfastly confirms and expands the gains of the revolution and so long as its foreign policy is based on the renunciation [giving up] of ambitions of territorial expansion....
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