civil rights notes - AP NSL Civil Rights Expanding Equal...

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AP NSLCivil RightsExpanding Equal ProtectionI.The African American Civil Rights Movementa.Progress depended on…i.Finding more white allies (creating a majority coalition that could pass civil rights legislation) or ii.Shifting to policy-making arenas where whites had less of an advantage (the Courts)b.Civil rights movement did both. i.Broadened base by publicizing the denial to African Americans of essential, widely accepted liberties (strategy of nonviolent civil disobedience) ii.Moved their legal and political struggle from Congress to the federal courts II.The campaign in the courtsa.Broad interpretation: the Constitution is color blind, so no differential treatment is acceptableb.Narrow interpretation: equal legal rights, but African Americans and whites could otherwise be treated differentlyc.Supreme Court adopted narrow view in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)i.“Separate but equal”d.NAACP campaign relied on courts—litigation didn’t require broad coalitions.i.NAACP strategy went through a series of stages:1.Persuade the Supreme Court to declare unconstitutional the laws creating schools that were separate but obviously unequal2.Then persuade the Supreme Court to declare

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